Sanskirt லேபிளுடன் இடுகைகளைக் காண்பிக்கிறது. அனைத்து இடுகைகளையும் காண்பி
Sanskirt லேபிளுடன் இடுகைகளைக் காண்பிக்கிறது. அனைத்து இடுகைகளையும் காண்பி

புதன், 31 மார்ச், 2010

Aryan Indra Vs Dravidian Indra



Brahmins’ lies about Indra and Vishnu





Indra as told by Brahmins







Vedas
Indra is considered by Brahmins and linguist as the most important deity in Vedic Hinduism, and is celebrated in 250 hymns within the Rg Veda alone. It is claimed by the Brahmins and Indo Aryan Racist/Linguists that Indra was the supreme ruler of all the gods and the leader of Devas. Indra was god of war and greatest of all warriors. He was the strongest of all beings and ruled thunder and storms. Indra was the defender of all gods and mankind against the forces of the evil. He was further claimed and regarded as the creator god since he brings water to the earth and thus causes fertility. He has also the power to revive slain warriors who had fallen in the battle.

Fraud Brahmins claim that on Manasottara Mountain are the abodes of four demigods. East of Sumeru Mountain is Devadhani, where King Indra lives, and south of Sumeru is Samyamani, the abode of Yamaraja, the superintendent of death. Similarly, west of Sumeru is Nimlocani, the abode of Varuna, the demigod who controls the water, and north of Sumeru is Vibhavari, where the demigod of the moon lives. They further claim that as the demigod in charge of the eastern side of the universe, where the heavenly planet or paradise is situated, Indra as known as the ruler of Svargaloka. The planet in which Indra reigns is called Indraloka. Indra's consort is Indrani, and Brhaspati is Indra's priest. Indra rides on the king of the elephants, Airawat haathi, who is white in color and has four tusks.
Epithets
The Rig-Veda frequently refers to Indra as Śakra, "the mighty-one." Additionally, Hindu scriptures refer to Indra by a number of other titles such as Mahavendra, Pu'rendra, Vāsava, and Vaka-shana. Although modern texts usually adhere to the name Indra, the traditional Hindu texts, such as the Vedas, the Epics, and Puranas, use Indra, Sakra and Vasava interchangeably. As a result of defeating the Vrtra, Indra also earned the title Vrtrahan, or "assassin of Vrtra."
Characteristics
Indra was born of a human mother and father, marking him as the only Hindu god to come from human progenitors. Indra is not a perfect being, and is ascribed with more human characteristics and vices than any other Vedic deity, probably due to his human origin.
For instance, when he is intoxicated with soma, Indra has a penchant for garrulous, drunken boasting. Moreover, a number of well-known stories about Indra tell of sins, such as murder and extramarital affairs) that he committed and his subsequent punishment.


Functions of Indra
In ancient Vedic times, Indra (so called) was the focus of many Vedic sacrifices.
Due to his connection with storms, Indra is also hailed as the dispenser of rain, and feared as the lord of thunder and lightning. Indra is said to send thunderstorms wherever and whenever he desires. The Rig-Veda 2.12.7 describes Indra's status as follows:
He under whose supreme control are horses, all chariots, and the villages, and cattle;
He who gave being to the Sun and Morning, who leads the waters, He, O men, is Indra.
In his capacity as the warrior god, Indra takes responsibility for defeating malevolent entities. In classic Vedic tales and in the later Epics, he constantly wages war against the Asuras and Daityas.
Decline in Popularity, according to Indo Aryan Racists/Linguists and Brahmins
In later mythology, Indra (so claimed) was relegated to the second level of gods, which was comprised mostly of outdated Vedic deities. Indra still maintained supremacy over these older gods. Hindus usually see Indra as minor deity in practical worship. He was not at all a family God of Aryan Race esp. Brahmins. Nowadays his name was merely spelled during Sacrifices and Ceremonies by Brahmins aka Paarppaans. Thats all.

During Mahabharata Period, As Lord Krishna protected people from calamity of heavy rain by sheltering them in Govardhana hills, they stopped the worship of Lord Indra (who was considered as rain god at that time) and started worshipping of Lord Vishnu or Lord Krishna.























Indra, as known to Indo Aryan Racists/ Linguists



According to Indo Aryan Racists/Linguists, Indra, is the god of the firmament, is the Jupiter Pluvius of the Indian Āryans. In the Vedas he is placed in the first rank among the gods; yet he is not regarded as an uncreated being, being distinctly spoken of in various passages of the Vedas as being born, and as having a father and a mother. He is sometimes represented as having been produced by the gods as a destroyer of enemies, as the son of Ekāṣṭakā, and in Rv.1.9.13 he is said to have sprung from the mouth of Puruṣa. He is of a ruddy or golden colour, and can assume any form at will. He rides in a bright golden chariot drawn by two tawny horses. His most famous weapon is the thunderbolt, which he uses with deadly effect in his warfare with the demons of darkness, drought and inclement weather, variously called Ahi, Vṛitra, Śambara, Namuchi &c. He storms and breaks through their castles, and sends down fertilizing showers of rain to the great delight of his worshippers. He is thus the lord of the atmosphere, the dispenser of rain, and governor of the weather. He is represented as being assisted by the Maruts or storm-gods in his warfare. Besides the thunderbolt, he uses arrows, a large hook, and a net. The Soma juice is his most favourite food, and under its exhilarating influence he performs great achieve- ments (cf. Rv.1.119), and pleases his devout worshippers, who are said to invite the god to drink the juice. He is their friend and even their brother; a father, and the most fatherly of fathers; the helper of the poor, and the deliverer and comforter of his ser- vants. He is a wall of defence; his friend is never slain or defeated. He richly rewards his adorers, particularly those who bring him libations of Soma, and he is supplicated for all sorts of temporal blessings as cows, horses, chariots, health, intelligence, pros- perous days, long life, and victory in war. In the Vedas Indra's wife is Indrānī, who is invoked among the goddesses. Such is the Vedic conception of Indra.


Indo Aryan Racists/Linguists also claims that in later mythology he falls in the second rank. He is said to be one of the sons of Kaśyapa and or Aditi. He is inferior to the triad Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśa (though in some places Viṣṇu is regarded as his younger brother, cf. R.14.59, 15.4), but he is the chief of all the other gods, and is commonly styled Sureśa, Devendra &c. As in the Vedas so in later mythology, he is the regent of the atmosphere, and of the east quarter, and his world is called Svarga. He sends the lightning, uses the thunderbolt and sends down rain. He is frequently at war with Asuras, whom he constantly dreads, and by whom he is sometimes defeated.










Brahmins’ Lies about Indra


The 14 Indras
Brahmins always tell lies and claims that each Manu rules during an eon called a Manvantara. 14 Manvantaras make up a Kalpa, a period corresponding to a day in the life of Brahma. Every Manvantara has 1 Indra that means with every Kalpa 14 Indras changes.

The following list is according to Vishnu Purana 3.1–2):

Manvatara/Manu Indra
Svayambhuva Yajna

Swarochisha Vipaschit
Uttama Sushaanti
Taamasa Shibi

Raivata Vibhu
Chaakshusha Manojav
Shraaddhdeva Purandara (the present Indra)
Savarni Bali

Daksha Saavarni Adbhut
Brahma Saavarni Shanti
Dharma Saavarni Vish
Rudraputra Saavarni Ritudhaama
Ruchi (Deva Saavarni) Devaspati
Bhaum (Indra Saavarni) Suchi



Manvantara or Manuvantara/age of a Manu/ Brahminical period of time measurement:

Manvantara is a Sanskrit sandhi, a combination of words manu and antara, manu-antara or manvantara, literally meaning the duration of a Manu, or his life span. These Brahmins claims to cheat that each Manvantara is created (??) and ruled by a specific Manu, who in turn is created (??) by Brahma. Manu creates the world, and all its species during that period of time, each Manvantara lasts the lifetime of a Manu, upon whose death, Brahma creates another Manu to continue the cycle of Creation or Shristi, Vishnu on his part takes a new avtar, and also a new Indra and Saptarishis are appointed (by whom and for what reasons ??).

Duration of a Manvantara
Sub-divisions
1 human year - 1 Ahoratra for God (1 day and 1 night)
360 Ahoratras of Gods - 1 Deva Vatsara
12,000 Deva Vatsaras - 1 Chaturyuga (4320000 years of human beings)
(4800 Divya Vatsaras of Kritayuga, 3600 Divya Vatsaras of Treta Yuga, 2400 Divya Vatsaras of Dvapara Yuga, & 1200 Divya Vatsaras of Kali Yuga)
71 Caturyugas - 1 Manvantaram (1 life span of Manu)
14 Manvantaras - 1 kalpa (1 day of Brahma)
2 Kalpas - 1 day and night of Brahma (Ahoratra)
360 days of Brahma - 1 Brahma varsha
100 Brahma varsha - 1 life span of Brahma

Eventually it takes 14 Manus and their respective Manvantaras to create a Kalpa, Aeon, or a ‘Day ofBrahma’. Thereafter, at the end of each Kalpa, there is a period of dissolution or Pralaya 4, wherein the world is destroyed and it is lies in a state of rest, during a period called the, ‘Night of Brahma’. Brahmins could tell about only one pralaya story at the time of Vaivasvata and not the other pralayas



Manus as claimed by Brahmins
According to Cheating Brahmins, there is a list consisting of 14 manus, which is as follows;
1. Svayambhuva Manu
2. Svarocisa Manu
Brahmins are claiming that Vibhu came as Svarocisa Manu, the son of Svarocih, or Agni. During the reign of Svarocisa, the post of Indra was assumed by Rocana, the son of Yajna. Tusita and others became the principal demigods, and Urja, Stambha and others became the seven saints
3. Uttama Manu
Brahmins are claiming that Satyasena came as Uttama Manu, the son of King Priyavrata. Among the sons of this Manu were Pavana, Srnjaya and Yajnahotra. During the reign of the third Manu, Pramada and other sons of Vasistha became the seven sages. The Satyas, Vedasrutas and Bhadras became demigods, and Satyajit was selected to be Indra, the King of heaven.
4. Tamasa Manu
Brahmins are claiming that Hari came as Tamasa Manu, the brother of Uttama. Tamasa had ten sons, headed by Prthu, Khyati, Nara and Ketu. During the reign of Tamasa Manu, among the demigods were the Satyakas, Haris and Viras. The heavenly King, Indra, was Trisikha. The sages in saptarsi-dhama were headed by Jyotirdhama. In the Tamasa manvantara the sons of Vidhrti also became demigods.
5. Raivata Manu
Brahmins are claiming that Vaikuntha came as as Raivata Manu, the twin brother of Tamasa (one who was mentioned above). His sons were headed by Arjuna, Bali and Vindhya.
6. Caksusa Manu
Brahmins are claiming that Ajita came as Caksusa Manu, the son of king Caksu. He had many sons, headed by Puru, Purusa and Sudyumna. During the reign of Caksusa Manu, the King of heaven was known as Mantradruma. Among the demigods were the Apyas (whose stories concocted by Brahmins are unavailable), and among the great sages were Havisman and Viraka. In this sixth manvantara millennium, Lord Visnu, the master of the universe, appeared in His partial expansion. He was begotten by Vairaja in the womb of his wife, Devasambhuti, and His name was Ajita.

7. Vaivasvata Manu (the current Manu)
Brahmins are claiming that Vamana came as Vaivasvata Manu, the son of Vivasvan, the sun-god. Brahmins are claiming that the present Manu, Vaivasvata (whose presence could not be explained by these Brahmins), has already lived for 4,320,000 years multiplied by 28, or 120,960,000 years. In other words, we are in the twenty-eighth millennium of Vaivasvata Manu. He has ten sons, named Iksvaku, Nabhaga, Dhrsta, Saryati, Narisyanta, Nabhaga, Dista, Tarusa, Prsadhra and Vasuman. In this manvantara, or reign of Manu, among the demigods are the Adityas, Vasus, Rudras, Visvedevas, Maruts, Asvini-kumaras and Rbhus. The king of heaven, Indra, is known as Purandara, and the seven sages are known as Kasyapa, Atri, Vasistha, Visvamitra, Gautama, Jamadagni and Bharadvaja.
8. Savarni Manu
Brahmins are claiming that Sarvabhauma comes as Savarni Manu, a son born to the sun-god and wife named Chaya. Savarni's sons are headed by Nirmoka, and among the demigods are the Sutapas. Bali, the son of Virocana, is Indra, and Galava and Parasurama (who already lived during the time of Rama and Brahmins should explain, how he comes again in the next Savarni Manu period) are among the seven sages.
The story of Samudra Manthana



Brahmins are claiming that Indra, the King of Devatas, while riding on an elephant, came across a sage named Durvasa who offered him a special garland. Indra accepted the garland, placing it on the trunk of the elephant. The elephant, irritated by the smell of the garland, threw it to the ground. This enraged the sage as the garland was a dwelling of Sri (fortune) and was to be treated as prasada. Durvasa Muni cursed Indra and all devas to be bereft of all strength, energy, and fortune.
In battles that followed this incident, Devas were defeated and Asuras (demons) led by king Bali gained control of the universe. Therefore it is clear that the samudra Manthana was after vaivasthava manu period and during Savarni Manu Period, as King Bali was the real Indra. In the story of Samudra Mantha, therefore Fraud Brahmins has stated both Indras i.e. Purandara of Vaivastava Manu and King Bali of Savarni Manu.
In the Yoga Vasistha, Lord Rama inquires about King Bali and he is told by his Guru Vasistha that Bali was a great king and is always protected by Lord Vishnu. Hence Bali, who lived during the lifetime of Rama, has become Indra in the next Savarni Manu Period which has not occurred yet. How it is possible? As the present manu period is vaivasta manu and not Savarni Manu. Even if accept this claim of Brahmins for the sake of argument only, where is purandara who is actually the present Indra (according to cheating Brahmins)?
Therefore the origin of Indra theory submitted by fraud Brahmins is incorrect.
9. Daksa-savarni Manu
Brahmins are further claiming that Rsabha comes as Daksa-savarni Manu, the son of the demigod Varuna. Daksa-savarni's sons are headed by Bhutaketu, and among the demigods are the Maricigarbhas. Adbhuta is Indra, and among the seven sages is Dyutiman. In this period of Manu, the incarnation Rsabha is born of Ayusman and Ambudhara.

10. Brahma-savarni Manu
Brahmins are further claiming that Visvaksena comes as Brahma-savarni Manu, the son of Upasloka. Among Brahma-savarni's sons is Bhurisena, and the seven sages are Havisman and others. Among the demigods are the Suvasanas, and Sambhu is Indra. The incarnation in this period of Manu is Visvaksena, who is a friend of Sambhu and who is born from the womb of Visuci in the house of Visvasrasta.

11. Daksa-savarni Manu
Brahmins are further claiming that Dharmasetu comes as Dharma-savarni Manu, the son of Ruci. Dharma-savarni has ten sons, headed by Satyadharma. Among the demigods are the Vihangamas, Indra is known as Vaidhrta, and the seven sages are Aruna and others. In this manvantara, the incarnation is Dharmasetu, who is born of Vaidhrta and Aryaka.

12. Rudra-savarni Manu
Brahmins are further claiming that Sudhama comes as Rudra-savarni Manu, the son of Rudra. Rudra-savarni's sons are headed by Devavan. The demigods are the Haritas and others, Indra is Rtadhama, and the seven sages are Tapomurti and others. The incarnation in this manvantara is Sudhama, or Svadhama, who is born from the womb of Sunrta. His father's name is Satyasaha.


13. Deva-savarni Manu
Brahmins are further claiming that Yogesvara comes as Deva-savarni Manu, the son of Satyasaha. Among Deva-savarni's sons is Citrasena, the demigods are the Sukarmas and others, Indra is Divaspati, and Nirmoka is among the sages. The manvantara-avatara is Yogesvara, who is born of Devahotra and Brhati.
14. Indra-savarni Manu
Brahmins are claiming that Brhadbhanu comes as Indra-savarni Manu, the son of Bhuti. Among Indra-savarni's sons are Uru and Gambhira, the demigods are the Pavitras and others, Indra is Suci, and among the sages are Agni and Bahu. The incarnation of this manvantara is known as Brhadbhanu. He is born of Satrayana from the womb of Vitana.
These Brahmins @ Paarppaans could not explain the adventures of all these Indras during all those previous Kalpa and manvantara.
Reckoning of time amongst the Devas
• 1 human year = 1 day of the Devas.
• 30 days of the Devas = 1 month of the Devas.
• 12 months of the Devas = 1 year of the Devas = 1 divine year.
• The lifespan of the Devas is 100 years of the Devas (= 36,000 human years)
The Vishnu Purana Time measurement section of the Vishnu Purana Book I Chapter III explains the above as follows:
• 2 Ayanas (six month periods, see above) = 1 human year or 1 day of the devas
• 4,000 + 400 + 400 = 4,800 divine years = 1 Krita Yuga
• 3,000 + 300 + 300 = 3,600 divine years = 1 Tretá Yuga
• 2,000 + 200 + 200 = 2,400 divine years = 1 Dwápara Yuga
• 1,000 + 100 + 100 = 1,200 divine years = 1 Kali Yuga
• 12,000 divine year = 4 Yugas = 1 Mahayuga(also called divine yuga)
Reckoning of time for Brahma
• 1000 Mahayugas = 1 kalpa = 1 day (day only) of Brahma (4.32 billion human years; close to the estimated age of the Sun, which is 4.59 Billion Years).
(Two kalpas constitute a day and night of Brahma)
• 30 days of Brahma = 1 month of Brahma (259.2 billion human years)
• 12 months of Brahma = 1 year of Brahma (3.1104 trillion human years)
• 50 years of Brahma = 1 Pararddha
• 2 parardhas = 100 years of Brahma = 1 Para = 1 Mahakalpa (the lifespan of Brahma)(311.04 trillion human years)
The Four Yugas
4 charanas (1,728,000 solar years)
Satya Yuga

3 charanas(1,296,000 solar years) Treta Yuga

2 charanas(864,000 solar years) Dwapar Yuga

1 charanas(432,000 solar years) Kali Yuga

The cycle repeats itself so altogether there are 1,000 cycles of mahayugas in one day of Brahma.
• One cycle of the above four yugas is one mahayuga (4.32 million solar years). Thus a day of Brahma, kalpa, is of duration: 4.32 billion solar years. Two kalpas constitute a day and night of Brahma
• A manvantara consists of 71 mahayugas (306,720,000 solar years). Each Manvantara is ruled by a Manu.
• After each manvantara follows one Sandhi Kala of the same duration as a Krita Yuga (1,728,000 = 4 Charana). (It is said that during a Sandhi Kala, the entire earth is submerged in water.)
• A kalpa consists of a period of 1,728,000 solar years called Adi Sandhi, followed by 14 manvantaras and Sandhi Kalas.
• A day of Brahma equals
(14 times 71 mahayugas) + (15 x 4 Charanas)
= 994 mahayugas + (60 Charanas)
= 994 mahayugas + (6 x 10) Charanas
= 994 mahayugas + 6 mahayugas
= 1,000 mahayugas

Brahmins @ Paarppaans and their Indra theory
These Fraud Brahmins claims that currently, 50 years of Brahma have elapsed and we are in the first Day of the 51st year. This Brahma's day, Kalpa, is named as ShvetaVaraha Kalpa. Within this Day, six Manvantaras have already elapsed and we are in the seventh Manavatara, named as - Vaivasvatha Manvantara. Within the Vaivasvatha Manavantara, 27 Mahayugas (4 Yugas together is a Mahayuga), and the Krita, Treta and Dwapara Yugas of the 28th Mahayuga have elapsed. We are in the Kaliyuga of the 28th Mahayuga.
Thus these Fraud Brahmins @ Paarppaans told about the adventures of (Dravidian) Indra, who is (said to be) in the 51 year of Brahma. They are not ready (but unable) to tell the adventures of Indras who were existed in the previous 50 years of Brahma. They should tell about the adventures of Indra of each manvantara which consists of 71 mahayugas (306,720,000 solar years).
They could not explain or to give some concocted stories about the same as they do know the etymology of Trētā Yuga and Dvāpara Yuga

Trētā Yuga
त्रि num. a. Three;
त्रि -> त्रिक trika a. Triple, three-fold.
त्रि -> त्रितय triya a. (त्रितयी Trayee, f.), Consisting of three parts, three-fold.

त्रि -> त्रितयम् A triad, a group of three

त्रि -> त्रिस् tris
त्रि -> त्रिस् ind. Thrice, three times.
त्रि -> त्रेधा ind. Trebly, in three ways or parts;
त्रि -> त्रेता trētā, 1 A triad, triplet. -2 The three sacred fires taken collectively. -3 A particular throw at dice, a cast of three or trey. -4 the second of the four Yugas of the Hindus;
They should arrange the Trētā Yuga as the 3rd Yuga in the Hindu Chronology. But the same is in 2nd Order. Brahmins are such an intelligent people
Dvāpara Yuga
द्वि dvi , num. a. (Nom. du. द्वौ m., द्वे f., द्वे n.) Two, both; (N. B. In comp. द्वा is substituted for द्वि necessarily before दशन्, विंशति and त्रिंशत् and optionally before चत्वारिंशत्, पञ्चाशत्, षष्टि, सप्तति and नवति, द्वि remaining unchanged before अशीति.) [cf. L. duo, bis or bi in comp.; Gr. duo, dis; Zend dva; A. S. twi.]

द्वि dvi -> द्वय dvaya a. (-यी f.) 1 Two-fold, double, of two kinds or sorts;. -2 Relating to द्वैत (q. v.);. -यम् 1 Pair, couple, brace (usually at the end of comp.); -2 Two-fold nature, duplicity. -3 Untruthfulness. -4 (In gram.) The masculine and feminine gender. -यी A pair, couple.

द्वि dvi -> द्विक dvika a. 1 Two-fold, forming a pair, consisting of two; Bṛi.S.13.3. -2 Second. -3 Happening the second time. -4 Increased by two, two percent;

द्वि dvi -> द्वितय dvitaya a. (-यी f.) Consisting of or divided into two, double, twofold; -यम् A pair, couple;

द्वि dvi -> द्वितीय dvitīya a. Second;

द्वि dvi -> द्विधा dvidhā ind. 1 In two parts;

द्वि dvi -> द्विशस् dviśas ind. By twos, two by two, in couples.

द्वि dvi -> द्विस् dvis ind. Twice;

द्वि dvi -> द्वेधा dvēdhā ind. In two parts, in two ways, twice

द्वि dvi -> द्वैतम् dvaitam Duality.

द्वि dvi -> द्वैध dvaidha a. (-धी f.) Two-fold, double. -धम् 1 Duality, two-fold nature or state. -2 Separation into two parts. -3 Double resource, secondary reserve; -4 Diversity, difference, conflict, contest, variance; -5 Doubt, uncertainty; -6 Double-dealing, duplicity, one of the six modes of foreign policy; -7 Contradiction. -धम् ind. 1 In two parts. -2 In two ways, doubly.

द्वि dvi -> द्वापरः dvāparḥ/ द्वापरम् dvāparam 1 N. of the third Yuga of the world; -2 The side of a die marked with two points.
They should arrange the Dvāpara Yuga as the 2nd Yuga in the Hindu Chronology. But the same is in 3rd Order.
Thease Fraud Brahmins give false theories, which are relied upon by well educated Indo-Aryan Racist theory Scholars and Linguists without analysing and verifying the authenticity of falsity of those Brahmins’ claims.
Therefore, all those claims of those intelligent Brahmins are false and lie sans truth.










Truths behind the lies of Brahmins about Indra











Indo Aryan Linguists has invented the Aryan Race theory from stories in Vedas and puranas based upon the lies fabricated by Brahmins without verifying the authenticity of the same by using their analytical knowledge. Merely referring to Rig Veda and lies of Brahmins, these well eduucated Indo Aryan linguists/ scholars announced and understood that Indra is the god of rain and thunder, and the weather is at his command supplying rains in the universe. As controller of the megha (cloud), he is master of the clouds.
Indra's wife was named Paulomi (Sacidevi). She gave birth to three sons-Jayanta, Rsabha and Midhusa. He had other sons such as Nilambara, Rbhus, and Sitragupta. Another wife name is Sundari.
All the adventures of and stories about Indra are the adventures of Indra, who lived only during the lifetime of Rama. Let us see in details.
Most of the adventures, heroism and bad qualities of Indra are mentioned only in Ramayana.
Rama, Lakshmana and Sita were preceded to the ashrama of Sarabhanga. Indra was there with other gods, talking to the rishi. Knowing that Rama had arrived, he cut short his talk and went away as Rama had injured one eye of Jayanta, who is the son of Indra.


Indra is known for his roving eye. It is said that Indra once fell in love with Ahalya, the wife of sage Gautama. His mind was quick to work out on how to reach her. He made the cock crow much in advance. The sage thinking it was morning went to the river to perform his morning duties. Indra then donned the disguise of the sage and Ahalya, thinking her husband was back early, succumbed to his desires. Sage Gautama was of course furious when he returned and saw the trick Indra had played upon him. He cursed Ahalya to turn into a stone. The Ramayana recounts how when Rama’s foot touched the stone, Ahalya came back to life.

Brahminical Etymology of Indra:-

These moron/Fraud Brahmins @ Paarppaans claim that the word Indra is derived from the word इन्द् ind [To be powerful]. Hence Indra means Powerful One, according to that Brahmins.

These Brahmins claim is as follows

इन्द् ind To be powerful (occurring in the etymology of इन्द्र q. v.)

इन्द् ind -> इन्द्रः indrḥ 1 The lord of gods. -2 The god of rain, rain; cloud; -3 A lord or ruler. -4 A prince, king.

Unlike Indo Aryan Racists and Linguists, we have to analyse, whether such a Brahminical claim is correct or not?

Indra's subordinance was further promulgated in the Epics. In the Ramayana, Indra is the adversary of Ravana, king of Lanka, who battles against Indra in heaven. Indra is defeated by Ravana, whose son Indraji adds insult to injury by binding Indra in serpent nooses and dragging him across Lanka in a humiliating display. Indra is eventually released when elders convinced Indraji to do so, but Indra, as the defeated, had to accept Ravana's supremacy and pay tribute to him.


In reality, they have also invented इन् in to substantiate their claim.

इन् in इन् 6, 8 P. Ved. 1 To go. -2 To advance or rush upon, press upon; drive. -3 To invigorate. -4 To force, compel. -5 To drive away, remove. -6 To take possession of, pervade, fill. -7 To dispose. -8 To be lord or master (of anything).

But they are not ready to accept to provide to give that etymology of to be master for the word इन्द्रः Indra, as the said averments would be against their claim that he is god rather than Lord/master/King which is similar to Tamilians’ claim. So they claim that the word Indra is derived from the word इन्द् ind which means to be powerful.

इन्द् ind -> इन्द्रः indrḥ [इन्द्-रन्; इन्दतीति इन्द्रः; इदि ऐश्वर्ये Malli.] 1 The lord of gods. -2 The god of rain, rain; cloud; -3 A lord or ruler. -4 A prince, king. -Comp. -. -अनुजः, -अवरजः (indrah anujah) an epithet of Viṣṇu and of Nārāyaṇa (उपेन्द्र); तस्थौ भ्रातृसमीपस्थः शक्रस्येन्द्रानुजो यथा Rām.6.91.4. -कर्मन् m. an epithet of Viṣṇu (performing Indra's deeds).
इन्द्रकम् indrakam, An assembly room, a hall.
इन्द्रतम indratama, Ved. Most Indra-like, mighty, strong.

इन्द्रयु indrayu a. Longing to go to Indra.

इन्द्राणी indrāṇī The wife of Indra;

इन्द्रिय indriya इन्द्रिय a. Fit for or belonging to or agreeable to, Indra. -यः A friend or companion of Indra.
Tamil Etymology of Indra
All the gods of Present Hinduism are once upon a time, merely emperors or kings of a country. Because of their heroism and bravery, they are regarded and elevated as God. All the words, which denote King are also include God.
Compare.
இறை¹ iṟai , n. < இற-. 1. Height; உயரம். ஏந்துகொடி யிறைப்புரிசை (புறநா. 17, 27). 2. Head; தலை. (சூடா.) 3. Supreme God; கடவுள். இறை நிலையுணர்வரிது (திவ். திருவாய். 1, 3, 6). 4. Šiva; சிவன். (பிங்.) 5. Brahmā; பிரமன். (பிங்.) 6. King, sovereign, monarch; அரசன். இறைகாக்கும் வையக மெல்லாம் (குறள், 547). 7. Eminence, greatness; தலைமை. (பிங்.) 8. Impartiality; justice; நடுவுநிலைமை. கண்ணோடா திறைபுரிந்து (குறள், 541). 9. [K. eṟe.] Any one who is great, as one's father or guru or any renowned and illustrious person; உயர்ந்தோன். (தொல். பொ. 256; திவா.) 10. Superior, master, chief; தலைவன். (திவா.) 11. Elder brother; தமையன். (பரிபா. 11, 8.) 12. Husband, as lord of his wife; கண வன். நப்பின்னைதக்கிறை (திவ். பெரியதி. 2, 3, 5). இறைகிழவன் iṟai-kiḻavaṉ , n. < id. +. Ruler endowed with all kingly qualities; அரச னாதற்றன்மையையுடையவன். நில்லாத் தானை யிறைகிழ வோயே (பதிற்றுப். 54, 17). இறைமை iṟai-mai , n. < இறை¹. 1. Kingly superiority, eminence, celebrity; தலைமை. வீரங் குறைவரே யிறைமைபூண்டோர் (கம்பரா. மூலபல. 46). 2. Government, dominion; அரசாட்சி. பாண்டியற் குத் தன்னிறைமை முழுதுமீந்தான் (திருவிளை. அங்க. 27). 3. Divinity, divine nature; தெய்வத்தன்மை. அவனது இறைமைக்கு இழுக்காய் முடியும் (சி. சி. 8, 38, சிவஞா.). இறையவன் iṟaiyavaṉ , n. < இறை-மை. 1. Chief; தலைவன். 2. God; கடவுள். 3. A leader among the gods; தேவர் தலைவன். இந்திரன் முத லிய இறையவர் பதங்களும். (குறள், பரி. உரைப்பா இறைவன்¹ iṟaivaṉ , n. < இறு¹-. God, the all-abiding; எப்பொருளிலுந் தங்குதலுடைய கடவுள். (சிலப். 10, 184, உரை.) இறைவன்² iṟaivaṉ , n. < இறை¹. 1. Chief, master, superior; தலைவன். இவ்வூ ரிறைவனை யிழந்து (சிலப். 22, 144). 2. Supreme God; கட வுள். இறைவன் மலரடி (பாரத. இராசசூ. 146). 3. Viṣṇu; திருமால். (குறள், 610, உரை.) 4. Šiva; சிவன். (பரிபா. 11, 78, உரை.) 5. Brahmā; பிரமன். (பிங்.) 6. King; அரசன். இறைவற் கிறை யொருங்கு நேர்வதுநாடு (குறள், 733). 7. Husband; lord, in relation to a wife; கணவன். நற்புலி தனக் கிறைவன் (திவ். பெரியதி. 2, 3, 5). 8. Elder, venerable person; மூத்தோன். (திவா.) 9. Preceptor; குரு. (பிங்.) 10. Wiry indigo. See சிவ னார்வேம்பு. (மூ. அ.) இறைவி iṟaivi , n. fem. of இறைவன்². 1. Pārvatī; உமை. (பிங்.) 2. Goddess Durga; துர்க் கை. (சிலப். 12, உரைப்பாட்டுமடை, உரை.) 3. Mistress, lady, queen; தலைவி. இந்துவின் றிருமுகத் திறைவி (கம்பரா. யுத். மந்திர. 94). உடையார் uṭaiyār , n. < id. Hon. pl. 1. Lord, master; சுவாமி. உடையார் . . . திருவிழா வில் (S.I.I. ii, 306). 2. Title of certain castes of cultivators; சிலசாதியாரின் பட்டப்பெயர். 3. A village official in North and East Ceylon; இலங்கையில் ஒரு கிராம உத்தியோகஸ்தன். 4. Pl. The rich, as those who have world's goods; செல்வர். உடையார்மு னில்லார்போல் (குறள், 395). உடையான் uṭaiyāṉ , n. < உடைமை. 1. Master, lord; சுவாமி. உடையா னல்லாதானை உடை யானென (சி. போ. அவையடக்கம், சிற்.). 2. (Gram.) Substantive noun as qualified by an attributive; விசேடியம். (பி. வி. 31, உரை.) 3. A caste title. See உடையார், 2. கோ³ kō, n. [M. kō.] 1. Emperor; சக்கரவர்த்தி. கோக்கண்ட மன்னர் குரைகடற் புக்கிலர் (தமிழ்நா. 126). 2. King; அரசன். (பிங்.) 3. Great man, eminent person; பெருமையிற் சிறந்தோன். (பிங்.) 4. Father; தகப்பன். நின்கோ வரினு மிங்கே வருக (கலித். 116). 5. Leadership, domination; தலைமை. ஐவர் வந்து கோச்செய்து குமைக்க (தேவா. 997, 6). கோயில் kōyil , n. < கோ³ + இல். [T. kōyila, M. kōyil.] 1. Palace, residence of a king or noble man; அரண்மனை. கோயின் மன்னனைக் குறுகி னள் (சிலப். 20, 47). 2. Temple, sanctuary, church, chapel; ஆலயம். அரும்பொகுட் டனைத்தே யண்ணல் கோயில் (பரிபா. பக். 174, செய்யுள், 2). ஆள்¹(ளு)-தல் āḷ- , 2 v. tr. [T. ēlu, K. M. āl.] 1. To rule, reign over, govern; அரசுசெய்தல். (திவ். பெரியதி. 6, 2, 5.) 2. To receive or accept, as a protégé; ஆட்கொள்ளு தல். ஆள்கின்றா னாழியான் (திவ். திருவாய். 10, 4, 3). 3. To control, manage, as a household; அடக்கி யாளுதல். 4. To use a word in a particular sense and so give currency to it; வழங்குதல். சான்றோரா லாளப்பட்ட சொல். 5. To cherish, maintain; கைக்கொள்ளுதல். நாணாள்பவர் (குறள், 1017). 6. To keep or maintain in use; கையா ளுதல். எடுத்தாளாத பொருள் உதவாது. ஆள்-> ஆள்வார் āḷvār, n. The Deity, as supreme ruler; ஸ்வாமி. திருத்தீக்காலி ஆள்வார் கூத்தப் பெருமா னடிகளுக்கு (S.I.I. iii, 103).

ஆள்-> ஆண்டவன் āṇḍavan , n. 1. Master; உடையவன். 2. God, as ruler of heaven and earth. Lord: கடவுள்.

ஆள்-> ஆண்டான் āṇḍāṉ , n. ஆண் டவன். (கம்பரா. கடறாவு. 62.)

ஆள்-> ஆண்டார் āṇḍār , n. 1. (Hon. pl.) Owner, master, lord; உடையோர். (அக. நி.) 2. Devas, gods; தேவர். (அக. நி.)

ஆள்-> ஆண்டை¹ āṇḍai , n. Master, lord, landlord; எசமானன். ஆண்டை கூலியைக் குறைத்தால், சாம்பான் வேலையைக் குறைப்பான்

உடை. + ஆள்-> உடையாளி uḍai-y-āḷi n -. Lord of the universe, God; கடவுள். Tinn.

வேந்து vēndu , n. 1. Kingly position; அரசபதவி. வேந்தனும் வேந்து கெடும் (குறள், 899). 2. Kingdom, royalty; இராச்சியம். (பு. வெ. 4, 5, உரை.) 3. Indra; இந்திரன். (அரு. நி.) 4. King; அரசன். வெந்துப்பின் வேந்து செறப்பட்டவர் (குறள், 895).

வேந்து vēndu-> வேந்தன் vēndaṉ , n 1. Indra; இந்திரன். வேந்தன் மேய தீம்புன லுலகமும் (தொல். பொ. 5). 2. King; அரசன். பாடல்சான்ற விறல்வேந்த னும்மே (புறநா. 11). 3. Sun; சூரியன். (சூடா.) 4. Moon; சந்திரன். (சூடா.) 5. Bṛhaspati; வியாழன். (சூடா.)
வேந்து vēndu+ அவை³ avai-> வேத்தவை vēttavai , n. Royal assembly; இராசசபை. இசைபெறு திருவின் வேத்தவை (மலைபடு. 39).
வேந்து vēndu + இயல் iyal-> வேத்தியல் vēttiyal ->, n. 1. Kingly nature; வேந்தனது தன்மை. (நன். 409, மயிலை.) 2. (Nāṭya.) A kind of dance performed in the presence of a king, opp. to potu-v-iyal; அரசர்முன் ஆடும் கூத்துவகை. வேத்தியல் பொதுவிய லென விருதிறத்துக் கூத்தும் (சிலப். 14, 148, உரை). 3. (Puṟap.) See வேத்தியன்மலிபு. (புறநா. அரும்.)
வேந்து vēndu-> (வேந்திரம் vēndiram)-> இந்திரம்¹ indiram, n.1 That which is excellent; மேன்மையானது. அச்சுதற் காமெனு மிந்திரத் திருமாமுடி (கந்தபு. பட்டாபி. 6). 2. இந்திரபதவி. இந்திரத்தை யினி தாக வீந்தார்போலும் (தேவா. 721, 8).

இந்திரதிருவன் indira-tiruvaṉ , n. < id. + திரு. Person of great affluence, having the wealth of Indra; இந்திரனைப்போற் செல்வமுடைய வன். இந்திர திருவன் சென்றினி தேறலும் (மணி. 19, 116). இந்திரம்² indiram, n. Sense organ; இந்திரியம். இந்திரத்தை யினிதாக வீந்தார்போ லும் (தேவா. 721, 8). இந்திரம்² indiram-> இந்திரர் intirar , n. The Dēvas; தேவர். (புறநா. 182.)

இந்திரவிகாரம் indira-vikāram, n. < id. + vi-hāra. Name of a Buddhist supreme/hightest (இந்திரம்¹ indiram, n.1 That which is excellent/great) monastery in Kāviri-p-pū-m-paṭṭiṉam; காவிரிப்பூம்பட்டினத்தி லிருந்த ஒரு பௌத்தப்பள்ளி. (மணி. 26, 55.) இந்திரவில் indira-vil , n. < id. +. Rainbow, the bow of Indra; வானவில். (திவா.) இந்திரவிழவு indira-viḻavu , n. < id. +. An ancient annual festival in honour of Indra held in the month of Cittirai Kāviri-p-pū-m-paṭṭiṉam; இந்திரனைக்குறித்துச் செய்யும் ஓர் உற்சவம். (சிலப். பதி. 67.)

இந்திரம்² indiram-> இந்திரன்¹ idiraṉ , n. 1. Indra, who is the lord of the Svarga and the god of the agricultural plains and is also the guardian deity of the east--one of aṣṭa-tikku-p-pālakar, q.v.; தேவேந்திரன். (திவா.) 2. The 18th nak- ṣatra. See கேட்டை. (விதான. குணா. 1.) 3. Prince, ruler, chief; தலைவன். இந்திரராகிப் பார் மேல் (கந்தபு. நூற்பயன்.)

இந்திரம்² indiram+ஜாலம் jālam -> இந்திரஜாலம் intira-jālam, n. The art of magic; one of aṟupattu-nālu-kalai, q.v.; அறுபத்துநாலுகலையுள் ஒன்றாகிய மாயவித்தை. காலவடிவோ விந்திரஜால வடிவோ (அருட்பா, 5, தெய்வமணி. 23).

இந்திரன்¹ idiraṉ -> இந்திராணி intirāṇi , n. 1. The wife of Indra; இந்திரன் மனைவி. (சூடா.) 2. Indrāṇi, energy of Indra; one of catta- mātar, q.v.; சத்தமாதரி லொருத்தி.

இந்திரம்² indiram-> இந்திரியம் intiriyam , n. 1. Organ of sense; பொறி. 2. Semen; சுக்கிலம். (பிங்.)




Some stories are told to show that Indra was so powerful.
1. Namuchi was a very powerful King, the brother of Maya (father of Ravana’s wife Mandodari). However, unable to bear the onslaught of Indra, he took asylum. Thereupon, Indra said to him, "O Namuchi, let us be friends from now. I shall not slay thee, O friend, with anything that is wet or dry. I shall not slay you in the night or in the day! I swear to this sacred covenant." Assured by this oath, Namuchi emerged from his hiding place. Indra seized this opportunity and cut off Namuchi's head, using the foam of water as his weapon [Namuchi might be killed by drowning]. The time was evening. This coward act could not be cited by Brahmins as mighty indra’s heroic action.
2. According to the Rig Veda, Vritra kept the waters (in the Dams for agriculture purpose in his country). Indra, who destroyed all the fortresses of Vritra and liberated the imprisoned rivers, killed him. Vrita should be come from Naga clan. Brahmins wrongly claims that he is a serpant (Ahi). Because of defeating the Vrtra, Indra also earned the title Vrtrahan, or "assassin of Vrtra."
3. Sambara is an ancient aboriginal king mentioned in the Rig Veda. Sambara lived for forty years on the mountains and possessed several impregnable cities. These cities ruled by Sambara were desired by Divodasa. For the mighty Divodasa, Indra destroyed the Sambara citiesand gave one city to Divodasa. For the sake of Divodasa only indra has attacked Sambara who has no enmity with Indra.
These Indra stories coupled with Brahmins’ lies are submitted by Brahmins to show Dravidian Indra as Mighty Aryan God. Indra was not at all an aryan god and mighty one.
Indra is defeated by Ravana, whose son Indraji adds insult to injury by binding Indra in serpent nooses and dragging him across Lanka in a humiliating display. Indra is eventually released when the elders convinced Indrajit to do so, but Indra, as the defeated, had to accept Ravana's supremacy and pay tribute to him.
Therefore, the etymology submitted by fraud Brahmins is incorrect.



Lord Indra in Ramayana

Title to Indra was in Endanger during Ramayana.
We have to verify whether one can become indra by doing aswa medha sacrifies or not and how it has affected Indian History and how these Brahmins are able to show their supremacy in the name of Indra. The title to the thrown of Indra was put into trouble primarily by Viswamitra, Atri etc. during the Ramayana period. Brahmins claim that there is only one Indra for each Manvantara. There could not be another Indra. This is the first claim/averment/allegation/explanation/concocted story of Brahmins about Indra. Now during the same Ramayana period, these fraud Brahmins claim that One who performs 100 Asvamedha-yajnas will attain the position of Indra. By performing 100 Aswamedha yajna, these kings will give plenty of money to these fraud Brahmins who will inturn give the title of Indra to those kings, even though the Indra of the manvantara is said already by the same fraud Brahmins in existence.
This title of Indra conferring is similar to எட்டி² eṭṭi /செட்டி. seṭṭi. Title of distinction conferred on persons of the Vaišya caste; வைசியர்பெறும் பட்டம். எட்டிகுமர னிருந்தோன் றன்னை (மணி. 4, 58).
எட்டிப்பட்ட ம் eṭṭipattam. (திவா.) வைசியசாதி. caste; Vaišya 3. 144). 3, வா. இலா (பெருங். மயிலியன்மாதர் பட்டந்தாங்கிய காவிதிப் எட்டி பெறும் வைசியசாதிமாதர் .
எட்டி+புரவு ->எட்டிப்புரவு eṭṭi-p-puravu, n. Land presented by the king to eminent merchants; வாணிகத்தாற் சிறந்தோர்க்கு அரசன் கொ டுத்த பூமி. (நன். 158, மயிலை.)

எட்டி+பூ-> எட்டிப்பூ eṭṭi-p-pū, n. Golden flower given by a king to the distinguished member of the Vaišya community 22, (மணி. எட்டிப்பூப்பெற்று பொற்பூ. கொடுக்கும் அரசர் கர்க்கு வணி பெற்ற எட்டிப்பட்டம்


Prithu Vs Indra
Prithu who was the father of Trisanku decided to conduct a hundred Ashwamedha yagnas or horse sacrifices in order to establish his domination over other kings. So far the only person to have conducted a hundred Ashwamedha yagnas was Indra, the king of the Devas. He did not want to share this honor with anyone. He did not interfere in the ninety-nine sacrifices hoping that something would go wrong. But when Prithu started the hundredth sacrifice Indra decided it was time for action.
Afraid of such title conferred by fraud Brahmins, Indra stole the sacrificial horse. The Brahmin sage Atri, who was conducting the sacrifice, realized what was happening. Atri informed Prithu’s son to follow Indra and kill him. Prithu’s son saw Indra in the form of a sadhu and did not release his arrows. Atri again instructed Prithu’s son to kill Indra, explaining the appearance Indra had taken was just a ploy. This time Indra realized that Prithu’s son meant business and so he abandoned the horse and escaped. Prithu’s son returned with the horse and the proceedings resumed. Prithu’s son was named Vijitashwa or the “one who won the horse”.
Every time during reperforming of such ashwamedha by Prithu, But Indra stole the horse again.
Trisanku and Viswamitra Vs Indra
"I Shall Create another Indra!";
Prithu’s son Trisanku decided to become Indra and therefore asked his guru, Vasishta, to send him to heaven (i.e to make him as Lord of Heavan by announcing as Indra) to which his guru refused. King Trisanku then asked Vasishta's hundred sons to send him to heaven/kingdom of Indra. The sons, outraged that Trisanku should not come to them when their father had refused.
Then he approached the sage Visvamitra, who had agreed to help him. Visvamitra organized a great sacrifice. Visvamitra ordered Trisanku to go to heaven. When Trisanku reached heaven/Indra’s kingdom, where he was prevented by Indra.
Due to the same there was an enmity with Indra and Viswamitra. Viswamitra roared that "I shall now create another Indra or I will see to it that heavens do not -have an Indra!"
Due to Some compromise, Visvamitra then commenced the creation of another heaven/kingdom which is similar to that of Indra for Trisanku. Trisanku, however, did not enjoy Trisanku Svarga. It seems that the same was not accepted as the heaven or kingdom similar to that of Indra. He was not recognised as Indra by the common people including fraud Brahmins.


Indra’s Vengeance against Viswamitra
Viswamitra was performing long years of penance performing a number of sacrificial rituals (Yajna) that terrified Indra, the king of gods. This is due to Viswamitra’s claim that one who performed one hundred such rituals qualified himself to the heavenly throne. Indra wanted to disturb the meditation of Viswamitra by whatever means at his disposal.
As per Indra’s direction and assurance, she approached Viswamitra. The result was their union and the birth of a female baby. Menaka abandoned her at birth. Kanwa happened to pass by the scene and stumbled upon the abandoned child. He adopted the baby out of kindness and left it under the care of his good lady. The baby was named Sakuntala as she was saved by the little birds known by the name, Sakunta.
These stories about Indra are mentioned in the epic Ramayana. It clearly shows the Brahminic attitude towards Indra.
Before that we have to analyse whether the so called sacrifices or yajnas are belonging to Brahmins exclusively. In reality, this yajna or sacrifices are having its origin in Dravidian or Tamil custom and they were fabricated/developed and polluted by these fraud Brahmins for their self interest to gain supremacy over Tamilian and poor Indian innocent people.
Sacrifice in Ancient India
Although many Hindus are vegetarian, there are Hindu temples in India as well as Nepal where goats and chickens are sacrificed. There are many village temples in Tamilnadu where this kind of sacrifice takes place. It is attested in the Tamil Grammar, namely Tolkaappiyam.
கொற்றவைநிலை koṟṟavai-nilai, n. Theme of offering sacrifice to koṟṟavai and worshipping Her; கொற்றவைக்குப் பலியிட்டுப் பரவும் புறத்துறை. (தொல். பொ. 59.)
In India, some semi-tribal Hindus, as well as some worshipper-communities of Shaktism (the Mother Goddess) offer sacrifice of goats and buffaloes to the deity. Among the Hindus of Nepal, animal sacrifices are common even today, not only for the mother goddess, but also for almost all deities of the Hindu pantheon.
In these non brahminical sacrifices, no yajna is performed or required. These offerings to their Family deity may either be vegitarian or non vegitarian foods.
படை¹-த்தல் paḍai- , 11 v. tr. [K. paḍē.] 1. To serve or distribute, as food to guests; பரிமாறுதல். 2. To offer, as boiled rice, to gods or manes; நிவேதித்தல். கடவுட்கு அமுது படைக்கவேண்டும்.
படைகல் paḍai-kal, n. < படை- +. A large stone slab on which boiled rice is mixed with various ingredients; அமுதுபாறை படைப்பு paḍaippu , n. < படை-. 1. Offering of food, as to a god; நிவேதனம். Colloq. 2. Serving of food; உணவு பரிமாறுகை. படையல் paḍaiyal, n. < படை-. (W.) Offering; நிவேதனவுணவு. படையல் போட்டான். In Dravidian/Tamil Country, the previous mentioned offering is done by the Velala caste by simple modes as worshipful praise for an abundant harvest. It is thanks giving ceremony. There are different kinds of such offerings to small deities by them. 1.அடியுறை aṭi-y-uṟai , n. 1. Offering to a great personage, as laid at his feet; பாத காணிக்கை. ஈட்டிய பல்பொருள்க ளெம்பிரானுக் கடியுறையென்று (திவ். பெரியாழ். 4, 3, 9). 2. Living in reverence, as for a person worthy of respect; வழிபட்டுறைகை. (கலித். 140, 11.) 2. உயிர்ப்பலி uyir-p-pali, n. . 1. Sacrifice of life; சீவபலி. 2. Warrior beheading himself as an offering to the goddess of war, an ancient custom; வீரன் தன்றலையைக் கொற்ற வைக்குக் கொடுக்கும் பலி. (தொல். பொ. 59, உரை.) 3. Saving a person's life; உயிர்ப்பிச்சை. ஒருயிர்ப் பலி நீ வழங்குகென்றாள் (பிரமோத். 2, 16). This is self sacrification as against Vedic Nara Medha/Nrimedha concepts. 3.காய்மடை kāy-maṭa, n. Offering of fruits, commonly to a ferocious deity; சிறு தெய்வத்திற்குப் படைக்கும் கனிவர்க்கநிவேதனம். (J.) 4.குருதிப்பலி kuruti-p-pali, n.Oblation in which a warrior makes an offering of his own blood to Durgā; வீரன் தன் இரத்தத் தைக் கொற்றவைக்குக் கொடுக்கும் பலி. (தொல். பொ. 59, உரை.) இரத்தபலி iratta-pali, n. . 1. Libation of blood, blood sacrifice; உதிர நைவேத்தி யம். 5.சீபலி cīpali , n. bali. 1. Rice offering in a temple; கோயிலில் இடும் அன்னபலி. 6. திக்குப்பலி tikku-p-pali, n.Offering to the tutelary deities of the quarters, as in a temple; திக்குத்தேவதைகட்கு இடும் பலி. 7. திருப்போனகம் tiru-p-pōṉakam. Offering of boiled rice to a deity; கடவுட்கு நிவேதித்த அழகு. ஒரு திருப்போனகம் (S. I. I. iii, 82). 8.திருமதுரம் tiru-maturam. A kind of sweet offering in temples; பழம், நெய், சர்க்கரை முதலியவற்றைச் சேர்த்துச் செய்யப்படும் நைவேத்தியப் பொருள். Nāñ. 9.தென்புலத்தார்வேள்வி teṉpulattār- vēḷvi, n. < தென்புலத்தார் +. Daily offering of libations to the manes, one of ai-vakai-vēḷvi, 10.தேங்காயெறி-தல் tēṅkāy-eṟi-, v. intr. . To dash coconuts and break, as offering to an idol; சிதறுதேங்காயுடைத்தல். Nāñ. 11.நேர்¹-தல் nēr- , 4 v. intr. 1. To be fit or appropriate; பொருந்துதல். நேரத் தோன்று மெழுத்தின் சாரியை (தொல். எழுத். 134). .--tr. 1. To grant, bestow; கொடுத்தல். காவாளை நேர்ந்தா னிடம்போலும் (தேவா. 111, 8). 6. [M. nēruka, K. nēr.] To agree, consent; உடன்படுதல். அழும்பில் வேளுரைப்ப நிறையருந்தானை வேந்தனு நேர்ந்து (சிலப். 25, 178).2. To resolve, vow, take vow; நிச்சயித்தல். நற்றார்கலவே மென நேர்ந்தும் (பு. வெ. 12, பெண்பாற். 7). 4. To entreat, pray; வேண்டு தல். (அக. நி.) 5. To say; to speak; சொல்லு தல். சீர்ச்சடகோபன் நேர்தலாயிரத்து (திவ். திரு வாய். 1, 8, 11). 6. To appropriate, as an offering to God; to consecrate, dedicate; பிரார்த் தனையாக வைத்தல். நேர்த்திக்கடன் nērtti-k-kaṭaṉ, n. ) 1. Vow made to a deity; நேர்ந்துகொள் ளும் பிரார்த்தனை. 2. Offering in fulfilment of a vow; பிரார்த்தனைக்காக வைத்த பண்டம். 12.பட்டைச்சாதம் paṭṭai-c-cātam, n.Offering of rice boiled and set in a cup-like form; கடவுளுக்கு நிவேதிக்கப்படும் அன்னக் கட்டி. 13.பரப்பரிசி parapparici, n.. Offering of rice, etc., to a deity 14. பானகபூசை pāṉaka-pūcai, n. The ceremony of offering pāṉakam 15.பிடிசுட்டுப்படைத்தல் piṭi-cuṭṭu-p-paṭaittal, n. The ceremony of offering cakes to the household deity; வீட்டுத் தெய்வத்திற்குப் பிடிப்பணியாரஞ்சுட்டு நிவேதிக்குஞ் சடங்கு. (W.) 16.பிண்டக்கிரியை piṇṭa-k-kiriyai, n. Ceremony of offering balls of cooked rice to the manes; பிண்டம்வைத்துப் பிதிரர்க்குச் செய் யுஞ் சடங்கு. 17.பிண்டோதகம் piṇṭōtakam, n.Ceremony of offering to the manes balls of cooked rice with water and sesame; பிதிரர்க்குப் பிண்டபலியுடன் எள்ளுக்கலந்த நீர்விடுங் கிரியை. 18.புறமடை puṟa-maṭai : Offering of flesh and spirits, made to ferocious deities, outside a temple, opp. to uṇmaṭai; கோயிற் புறத்துள்ள சிறு தெய்வங்கட்கு இடும் படைப்பு. (W.) 19.பூசணம்² pūcaṇam, n. Coin tied in a piece of cloth and set apart as a votive offering; நேர்த்திக்கடனாக முடிந்துவைக்கும் காசு முதலியன. ஒரு பணமெடுத்துப் பூசணமுடிந்து வை. Nāñ. 20.பூமடை pū-maṭai, n. Offering of flowers; பூப்பலி. (W.) 21.பெரும்பொங்கல் peru-m-poṅkal, n. 1. A festival. See தைப்பொங்கல். (W.) 2. Offering of poṅkal food பொங்கல்வை-த்தல் poṅkal-vai-, v. . intr. To boil rice for offering to a deity; தெய்வத்துக்குப் பொங்கலன்னஞ் சமைத்தல் முத்துச்சொரிதல் muttu-c-corital, n. சொரி-. Offering of boiled rice to a deity; அன்னம் நிவேதிக்கை. 22.பெருமடை peru-maṭai, n. Food offering to a deity; தெய்வங்களுக்கிடும் சோற்றுப் பலி. வளமிகு சிறப்பிற் றெய்வப் பெருமடை கொடுத்து (பெரியபு. கண்ணப். 19). 23.முடிக்காணிக்கை muṭi-k-kāṇikkai, n.Offering of the hair of a person's head which has been allowed to grow for a certain time, in fulfilment of a vow; தெய்வப் பிரார்த்தனையின் பொருட்டு வளர்த்த மயிர் முடியை மழித்துக் காணிக்கையாக இடுகை. Colloq. 24.விலைப்பலி vilai-p-pali, n. Sacrificial offering given to deities, with a view to gaining their favour; பயன்கருதித் தெய்வங்கட் கிடும் பலி. விலைப்பலி யுண்ணும் மலர்பலி பீடிகை (சிலப். 12, 43). 25.வெள்ளிலையமுது veḷḷilai-y-amutu, n. . Offering of betel, as to a diety; தாம்பூல நிவேதனம். 26.அவலமுது aval-amutu, n. offering of fried rice to the deity; 27.பராவிவை-த்தல் parāvi-vai-, v. tr. To make an offering to a deity in fulfilment of a vow; நேர்த்திக்கடனாகக் கொடுத் தல். (S. I. I. viii, 379.) 28.பூமாலைகொண்டுசொரிதல் pūmālai- koṇṭu-corital, n. < பூமாலை +. A kind of votive flower offering to a temple; நேர்த்திக்கடன்வகை. Nāñ. 29.ஆள்வினைவேள்வி āḷ-viṉai-vēḷvi, n. . Hospitality to guests held to be as meritorious as a sacrifice; விருந்து புறந்தருகை. (பதிற்றுப். 21, 13, உரை.) 30.காடுபலியூட்டு-தல் kāṭu-pali-y-ūṭṭu-, v. intr.To sacrifice cock, etc., to the forest deities before hunting, to ensure a good game; காட்டில்வாழும் தேவர்களுக்குப் பலியிடுதல். காட்டிலுறை தெய்வங்கள் 31.காவு³ kāvu , n. 1. Sacrifice, oblation to inferior deities; சிறுதெய்வங்களுக்கு இடும் பலி. காளிக்குக் காவுகொடுத்தார்கள் 32.குருதியூட்டு-தல் kuruti-y-ūṭṭu-, v. intr. . Lit., to feed with blood. To offer animal sacrifice; மிருகபலிகொடுத்தல் 33.மனைப்பலி maṉai-p-pali, n.Sacrifice to household gods; மனையுறை தெய்வங்கட் கிடும் பலி. மனைப்பலியூட்டினமை கண்டுண்க வூண் (ஆசாரக். 40). 34. இந்திரசிறப்பு indira-ciṟappu, n. A religious ceremony performed before the midday meal, consisting in the offering of small portions of cooked food to Indra for giving sufficient rain; இந்திர சிறப்புச் செய்வோன் முன்னர் (மணி. 11, 88). Worshipful praise of Fire (Agni/Sun) for an abundant harvest: In the earlier Dravidian/Tamil country, the farmers worshipped Fire/Agni as symbol of Sun in the form of light/Lamp. விளக்குக்குச்சோறூட்டு-தல் viḷakkuk- ku-ch-chōṟūṭṭu-, v. intr. To make an offering of boiled rice before a burning lamp in thanks-giving to the God of Fire, on gathering the first sheaves; நாட்கதிர் கொண்ட தும் அக்கினியின் பொருட்டு விளக்கு முன்பாகப் புதிய சோறு படைத்தல். (W.) கோத்திரி&sup4; kōttiri, n.Burning wick or small torch placed on an offering of cooked rice to a deity; தெய்வங்களுக்குப் படைப் பிட்டு அதன்பேரில் நாட்டும் திரி அல்லது சிறுபந்தம். Nāñ. This simple Dravidian/Tamil worship and sacrifices are connected together in the form of Vedic. Thereby self offering or self sacrifices were became other humen being or animal killing (Aswamedha, Naramedha, Sarpa Medha etc) or offering the foods directly into the fire. This led to the development of complicated Yajna System for the survival of Barbaric Brahmins to get Dhakshina/gifts in the forms of wealth/wife. The Vedic sacrifice: The ancient Vedic religion of the Aryans involved animal sacrifice on some special occasions and may have disappeared with the influence of Buddhism, Jainism and later reforms in Hinduism. In fact, yajna typically refers to any fire-offering or such equivalent ritual of the Vedic Indo-Aryans. The offerings were usually of vegetable origin, including saw-dust for the fire, grains like barley, etc. Milk and ghee (clarified butter) was also offered in large quantities. A mysterious, unidentified plan's juice, called Soma, was offered at special Soma sacrifices. As said earlier, animal flesh seems to have been offered at larger sacrifices. Brahmins @ Paarppaan are claiming that they are the supporters of Non violance theory/Ahimsa Tattva and they are pretending as vegitarian. To the contrary, their Aryan Vedas/books supports animal/human being sacrifies among the other things. These offering and sacrifice are mostly done on behalf of the king by the Brahmins for Dhakshinas/Gifts. It is not a ceremony of thanks giving of Tamil Country, wherein the offerer himself offers his belongings or his life directly to God. In Brahminical Sacrifice, Brahmina becomes Agent to the King for his victory. These brahmins did the same for Dakshina/Gift on behalf of Merchants too. In rarest cases, they did it for so called Sudras too. शूद्रः याजकः śūdrḥ yājakḥ. One who conducts a sacrifice for a Śūdra. 1. The Ashvamedha; "horse sacrifice" was one of the most important royal rituals of so called Vedic religion, described in detail in the Yajurveda (TS 7.1-5, VSM 22–25[1] and the pertaining commentary in the Shatapatha Brahmana ŚBM 13.1–5). The Rigveda does have descriptions of horse sacrifice, notably in hymns RV 1.162-163 (which are themselves known as aśvamedha), but does not allude to the full ritual according to the Yajurveda. The Ashvamedha could only be conducted by a king (rājā). Its object was the acquisition of power and glory, the sovereignty over neighbouring provinces, and general prosperity of the kingdom. The horse to be sacrificed must be a stallion, more than 24, but less than 100 years old. The horse is sprinkled with water, and the Adhvaryu and the sacrificer whisper mantras into its ear. Anyone who should stop the horse is ritually cursed, and a dog is killed symbolic of the punishment for the sinners. The horse is then set loose towards the North-East, to roam around wherever it chooses, for the period of one year (or half a year, according to some commentators). The horse is associated with the Sun, and its yearly course. If the horse wanders into neighbouring provinces hostile to the sacrificer, they must be subjugated. The wandering horse is attended by a hundred young men, sons of princes or high court officials, charged with guarding the horse from all dangers and inconvenience. During the absence of the horse, an uninterrupted series of ceremonies is performed in the sacrificer's home. After the return of the horse, more ceremonies are performed. The horse is yoked to a gilded chariot, together with three other horses, and RV 1.6.1,2 (YV VSM 23.5,6) is recited. The horse is then driven into water and bathed. After this, it is anointed with ghee by the chief queen and two other royal consorts. The chief queen anoints the forequarters, and the others the barrel and the hindquarters. They also embellish the horse's head, neck, and tail with golden ornaments. The sacrificer offers the horse the remains of the night's oblation of grain. After this, the horse, a hornless he-goat, a wild ox (go-mrga, Bos gavaeus) are bound to sacrificial stakes near the fire, and seventeen other animals are attached to the horse. A great number of animals both tame and wild are tied to other stakes, according to a commentator 609 in total (YV VSM 24 consists of an exact enumeration). Then the horse is slaughtered (YV VSM 23.15, tr. Griffith) Steed, from thy body, of thyself, sacrifices and accept thyself. Thy greatness can be gained by none but thee; The chief queen ritually calls on the king's fellow wives for pity. The queens walk around the dead horse reciting mantras. The chief queen then has to mimic copulation with the dead horse, while the other queens ritually utter obscenities.On the next morning, the priests raise the queen from the place where she has spent the night with the horse. With the Dadhikra verse (RV 4.39.6, YV VSM 23.32), a verse used as a purifier after obscene language. The three queens with a hundred golden, silver and copper needles indicate the lines on the horse's body along which it will be dissected. The horse is dissected, and its flesh roasted. Various parts are offered to a host of deities and personified concepts with cries of svaha "all-hail". The Ashvastuti or Eulogy of the Horse follows (RV 1.162, YV VSM 24.24–45), concluding with: May this Steed bring us all-sustaining riches, wealth in good kine, good horses, manly offspring Freedom from sin may Aditi vouchsafe us: the Steed with our oblations gain us lordship! In the Mahabharata, Yudhishtira (Book 14) performs the sacrifice, his brothers guarding the horse as it roamed into neighbouring kingdoms. Arjuna defeats all challengers. The Mahabharata says that the Ashvamedha as performed by Yudhishtira adhered to the letter of the Vedic prescriptions. After the horse was cut into parts, Draupadi had to sit beside the parts of the horse. In the Ramayana, Rama's father Dasharatha performs the Ashvamedha, which is described in the bala kanda (book 1) of the poem. The Ramayana provides far more detail than the Mahabharata. The ritual take place for three days preceded by sage Rishyasringa and Vasista(1.14.41,42). Again it is stated that the ritual was performed in strict compliance with Vedic prescriptions (1.14.10). Dasaratha's chief wife Kausalya circumambulates the horse and ritually pierces its flesh (1.14.33). Then "Queen Kausalya desiring the results of ritual disconcertedly resided one night with that horse that flew away like a bird." [1-14-34]. The fat of the sacrificed horse is then burnt in ritual fire and after that the remaining parts of the body with spoons made out of Plaksha tree branches(1.14.36,38-39). At the conclusion of the ritual Dasharatha symbolically offers his other wives to the presiding priests, who return them in exchange for expensive gifts (1.14.35). The four sides of the Yagna alter is also donated to priests who had done the ritual and it is exchanged by them for gold, silver, cows and other gifts(1.15.43-44). Vedanta and Puranas The Brhadaranyaka Upanishad (a mystical appendix to the Shatapatha Brahmana and likely the oldest of the Upanishads) has a creation myth where Mṛtyu "Death" takes the shape of a horse, and includes an identification of the Ashvamedha with the Sun: Then he became a horse (ashva), because it swelled (ashvat), and was fit for sacrifice (medhya); and this is why the horse-sacrifice is called Ashva-medha. Therefore the sacrificers offered up the purified horse belonging to Prajapati, (as dedicated) to all the deities. Verily the shining sun [ye tapati] is the Asvamedha, and his body is the year; Agni is the sacrificial fire (arka), and these worlds are his bodies. These two are the sacrificial fire and the Asvamedha-sacrifice, and they are again one deity, viz. Death. (BrUp 1.2.7. trans. Müller) The Upanishads describe ascetic austerities as an "inner Ashvamedha", as opposed to the "outer" royal ritual performed in the physical world, in keeping with the general tendency of Vedanta to move away from priestly ritual towards spiritual introspection; verse 6 of the Avadhuta Upanishad has: "Through extreme devotion [sam-grahaneṣṭi] he [the ascetic] performs ashvamedha within [anta]. That is the greatest sacrifice [mahā-makha] and the greatest meditation [mahā-yoga]." According to the Brahma Vaivarta Purana (185.180),[9] the Ashvamedha is one of five rites forbidden in the Kali Yuga. 2. Purushamedha; "human sacrifice" is a Vedic yajna (ritual) described in the Yajurveda (VS 30–31). The verse describes people from all classes and of all descriptions tied to the stake and offered to Prajapati. The Purusha Sukta describes the process of creation of matter from the cosmic Purusha (universal spirit) which is shown as a human-like entity. The Purusha Medha is an enactment of the sacrifice of Purusha that leads to creation. In a late Vedic Brahmana text, the Vadhula Anvakhyana 4.108 (ed. Caland, Acta Orientalia 6, p.229) actual human sacrifice and even ritual anthropophagy is attested: "one formerly indeed offered a man as victim for Prajāpati", for example Karṇājāya. "Dhārtakratava Jātūkarṇi did not wish to eat of the ida portion of the offered person; the gods therefore exchanged man as a sacrificial animal with a horse." References to anthropophagy are also found in Taittiriya 7.2.10 and Katha Samhita 34.11. Harishchandra's Sacrifice and Viswamitra Though Viswamitra was doing aswamedha yajna for those who desires of title of Indra, he is against Naramedha or Human sacrifice. While undertaking a penance, Kaushika helps a boy named Shunashepa who has been sold by his parents to be sacrificed at Harishchandra's yagna to please Varuna, the God of the Oceans. The king's son Rohit does not want to be the one sacrificed, as was originally promised to Varuna, so young Sunashep is being taken. A devastated and terrified Sunashepa falls at the feet of Kaushika, and begs for his help. He saved shushepa’s life. In Purushamedha, Killing of human being in the sacrifice involved. (Altar for human sacrifice at Monte Alban which is similar to Brahminical fire pit) Banabhatta, in a description of the dedication of a temple of Chandika, describes a series of human sacrifices; similarly, in the ninth century, Haribhadra describes the sacrifices to Chandika in Orissa. It was "more common" in the Southern parts of India, where it took on a scapegoating rather than purifying role. The Khonds, an aboriginal tribe of India, inhabiting the tributary states of Orissa and Andhra Pradesh (of Dhandakaranya region), became notorious, on the British occupation of their district about 1835, from the prevalence and cruelty of the human sacrifices they practised. Purushamedha ("human sacrifice") is a ritual described in the Yajurveda (VS 30–31). The verse describes people from all classes and of all descriptions tied to the stake and offered to Prajapati. in a late Vedic Brahmana text, the Vadhula Anvakhyana 4.108 (ed. Caland, Acta Orientalia 6, p.229) actual human sacrifice and even ritual anthropophagy is attested: "one formerly indeed offered a man as victim for Prajāpati", for example Karṇājāya. "Dhārtakratava Jātūkarṇi did not wish to eat of the ida portion of the offered person; the gods therefore exchanged man as a sacrificial animal with a horse." References to anthropophagy are also found in Taittiriya 7.2.10 and Katha Samhita 34. நரபலி nara-pali, n. Human sacrifice; மனிதபலி. இச்சையி னரபலி யிட்ட தலையை (அரிச். பு. விவாக. 121). Criticism and controversy 1. Cārvāka View:- The earliest recorded criticism of the ritual comes from the Cārvāka, an atheistic school of Indian philosophy that assumed various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious indifference. A quotation of the Cārvāka from Madhavacharya's Sarva-Darsana-Sangraha states: “The three authors of the Vedas were buffoons, knaves, and demons. All the well-known formulae of the pandits, jarphari, turphari, etc. and all the obscene rites for the queen commanded in Aswamedha, these were invented by buffoons, and so all the various kinds of presents to the priests, while the eating of flesh was similarly commanded by night-prowling demons. ”The mock bestiality and necrophilia involved in the ritual caused considerable consternation among the scholars first editing the Yajurveda. Griffith (1899) omits verses VSM 23.20–31 (the ritual obscenities), protesting that they are "not reproducible even in the semi-obscurity of a learned European language" (alluding to other instances where he renders explicit scenes in Latin rather than English). A. B. Keith's 1914 translation also omits verses. 2. Kanch Sankarachari's View: According to Kanchi Sankarachari, A yaga or sacrifice takes shape with the chanting of the mantras, the invoking of the deity and the offering of havis (oblation). The mantras are chanted (orally) and the deity is meditated upon (mentally). The most important material required for homa is the havis offered in the sacrificial fire-- in this "work" the body is involved. Ghee (clarified butter) is an important ingredient of the oblation. While ghee by itself is offered as an oblation, it is also used to purify other sacrificial materials - in fact this is obligatory. In a number of sacrifices the vapa(fat or marrow) of animals is offered. Madvacharya was against the killing of any pasu for a sacrifice. In his compassion he said that a substitute for the vapa must be made with flour and offered in the fire. In the concluding passage of the Chandogya Upanishad whwre ahimsa or non-violence is extolled you find these words, "Anyatra tirthebhyah". It means ahimsa must be practised except with regard to Vedic rites. According to Kanchi Sankarachari, there are a number of yajnas in which only ghee (ajya) is offered in the fire. In some, havisyanna (rice mixed with ghee) is offered and in some the cooked grains called "caru" or "purodasa", a kind of baked cake. In agnihotri, milk is poured into the fire; in aupasana, unbroken rice grains (aksata) are used; and in samidadhana, the sticks of the palasa (flame of the forest). In sacrifices in which the vapa of animals is offered, only a tiny bit of the remains of the burnt offering is partaken of - and of course in the form of prasada. These offerings by the Brahmins for Kings etc into fire are totally in controduction to the offerings by the Velala Farmer to God direectly in Tamil Country. Justification offered by the Brahmin is that the slaughtering the animal may be less painfull than the others, as it involves an immediate severing of the whole neck of the animal by one quick stroke of a sword or an axe (otherwise great calamities are believed to befall the sacrificer), rather than slitting of the throat. According to Kanchi Sankarachari, one is enjoined to perform twenty-one sacrifices. These are of three types:pakayajna, haviryajna and somayajna. In each category there are seven subdivisions. In all the seven pakayajnas as well as in the first five haviryajnas there is no animal sacrifice. It is only from the sixth haviryajna onwards (it is called "nirudhapasubandha") that animals are sacrificed. Brahmins sacrificed herds and herds of animals and gorged themselves on their meat. The Buddha saved such herds when they were being taken to the sacrificial altar was made. j animal sacrifices, meat in sraddha ceremonies and begetting a son by the husband's brother.. 3. True Meaning of Medha: Brahminical view of sacrificing horse or human being is due to confusion or wrong spelling/reading i.e.पाठ दोषः a false reading. There are 3 so called dhatu patas. 1. मेथ् mēth To hurt, injure, kill. 2. मेदः mēdḥ Fat. 3. मेधः mēdhḥ1 A sacrifice. In the Asvamedha, killing the horse in the sacrifice and swallowing of the fat by Brahmins are involved by combining the meaning of मेथ् mēth, मेदः mēdḥ and मेधःmēdhḥ. Etymology of Yajna: According to Sanskrit Dictionaries Yajna is derived from the so called Dhatu यज् yaj. To sacrifice, worship with sacrifices (often with instr. of words meaning 'a sacrifice'). However the meaning assinged to the said Dhatu is wrong if we applies the meaning to the following yajnas. 1. Ashvamedha Yajna= Horse killing worship/Sacrifice 2. Purushamedha Yajna= Human killing worship/Sacrifice 3. Sarpa Yajna= Serpant Worship/Sacrifice The meaning of the word Yajna should be a different one. Lets see. पुत्रः 1 A son; इष्टिः, -इष्टिका f. a sacrifice performed to obtain male issue.Generally Sanskrit Nighantu says that इष्टिः iṣṭiḥ and यज्ञः yajñḥ are derived from the same source. If we apply the meaning of Worship or sacrifice to Putra iṣṭiḥ is, then the meaning of Putra iṣṭiḥ would be worshiping or sacrificing of son. Therefore, the meaning of worship or sacrifice given by brahmin is not appropriate/sufficient. True meaning of Yajna. We have to find out the true meaning of yajna with the help of Tamil and Sanskrit words. வேள் vēḷ , n. Desire; விருப்பம். (W.) வேள்-தல் [வேட்டல்] vēḷ- , 9 v. tr. [K. bēḷ.] To offer sacrifices; யாகஞ் செய்தல். ஓதல் வேட்டல் (பதிற்றுப். 24, 6). வேள்-தல் vēḷ -> వేలుచు [ vēlucu ] , వేల్చు or వ్రేల్చు vēluṭsu. [Telugu.] v. a. To offer up a burnt sacrifice. హోమముచేయు. infin. వేల్వ. వేల్పించు vēl-pinṭsu. v. a. To cause to offer a burnt offering. యోమముచేయించు. "యోమముల్ వేల్పించి." ND. ii. 553.
வேள்வு vēḷvu, n. sacrifice; யாகம். விழவும் வேள்வும் விடுத்தலொன்றின்மையால் (சீவக. 138).
வேள்வு vēḷvu -> వేలిమి [ vēlimi ] [Telugu.] n. A burnt offering. హోమము. "వేలిమియున్ సురార్చనయు, విప్రసపర్యయుజిక్కె." Swa. ii. 57. వేలిమి కట్టెలు firewood used in a burnt sacrifice. వేలిమిబొట్టు a mark made on the forehead with the ashes from a burnt sacrifice, రక్ష. "నొసలివేలిమిబొట్టు మసిమీద మృగనాభితిలకంబు బటువుగా దీర్చవచ్చు." R. ii. 109.
వేలిమి vēlimi-> వ్రేల్మి [ vrēlmi ] [Telugu] n. A burnt offering, an offering by fire. హోమము. "దర్భలలును వ్రేల్మిసమిధలును." T. i. 27. టీ హోమమునకు చిదుగులును.
Compare this with
உல் ul (to meet, to love, to attach)-> இல் il-> இள் vēḷ -> இச்சி²-த்தல் icci- , 11 v. To desire, wish, crave for, covet; விரும்புதல். (பாரத. திரௌபதி. 75.)

இச்சி²-த்தல் icci-> இச்சை iccai, n. 1. Wish, desire, inclination; விருப்பம். (திருவாச. 41, 9.) 2. Devoted service; பத்தியோடு புரியந் தொண்டு. ஆட்கொண்டாய்க் கென்னினி யான்செயு மிச்சைகளே (தேவா. 672, 6). 3.

இச்சை iccai-> इच्छा icchā Wish, desire, inclination of mind, wil
இச்சை iccai-> இச்சியை icciyai, n. 1. Gift; offering; கொடை.2. Sacrifice; யாகம். 3. Worship; பூசனை.
இச்சியை icciyai, इज्य ijya To be worshipped. इज्या ijyā A sacrifice;
இள் vēḷ -> இட்டம்¹ iṭṭam, n. 1. Desire, wish, inclination of mind, will; விருப்பம். நம் பனை நாடொறு மிட்டத்தா லினிதாக நினைமினோ (தேவா. 20, 8).
இட்டம்¹ iṭṭam-> இட்டி iṭṭi, n. 1. Gift; கொடை. 2. Worship; பூசை. 3. Desire; longing; இச்சை.
இட்டி² iṭṭi, n. A religious sacrifice; யாகம். இட்டிகளும் பலவியற்றி (காஞ்சிப்பு. கடவுள். 19).
இட்டம் iṭṭam, n. 1. Purificatory ceremony; 2. Sacrifice; யாகம். 3. Yōga; யோகம்.
இட்டம் iṭṭam -> इष्ट iṣṭa 1 Wished, desired, longed for, wished for; -2 Beloved, agreeable, liked, favourite, dear; -3 Worshipped, reverenced. -4 Respected. -5 Approved, regarded as good. -6 Desirable; see इष्टापूर्त. -6 Valid. -7 Sacrificed, worshipped with sacrifices. इष्टः A sacrifice. इष्टम् 1 Wish, desire. -2 A holy ceremony -3 A sacrifice; Bṛi. Up.4.1.
இட்டன் iṭṭaṉ, n.1. Friend; சிநே கிதன். 2. Endeared person; விருப்பத்திற்கிடனான வன். நானிட்டனென்றருள்பட்டர் (அஷ்டப். திருவரங் கக். காப்பு, 4). 3. Master; எசமானன். இட்டனெ னக் காண்பரவ னேவலரை (சைவச. மாணாக். 16).
இட்டி iṭṭi -> इष्टिः iṣṭiḥ f. 1 Wish, request, desire. -2 Seeking, striving to get. -3 Any desired object. -4 A desired rule or desideratum; (a term used with reference to Patañjali's additions to Kātyāyana's Vārttikas; -5 Impulse, hurry. -6 Invitation, order. -7 A sacrifice.-8 An oblation consisting of butter, food &c.-Comp. -अयनम् a sacrifice lasting for a long time.
If we look at these Tamil and Sanskrit words, we can find out that the actual meaning of the word yajna is desires. Let’s apply the said meaning.
Putra ishti= Desire to obtain sons.
Cf: புத்திரகாமேட்டி puttirakāmēṭṭi, (யாழ். அக.) / Skt. puttra-kāmēṣṭi. desire to obtain sons; ஆண்மகப்பேறுவிரும்பிச் செய்யும் யாகம். (இராமநா. பாலகா. 7.)
However the actual meaning of Desire for the word Yajna is missing in Sanskrit. How that word was created. Lets see the etymology of Yajna.
Etymology of Yajna:-
உல் ul (to meet, to love, to attach)-> அல் al ->எல் el -> (எக்கு ekku)-> ஏக்கம் ēkkam, n. [M. ēkkam.] 1. Despondency, depression of spirits; விரும்பியது பெறாமையால்வருந் துக்கம். வானவ ரேக்கமுஞ் சிதைய (கந்தபு. துணைவர்வரு. 30). 2. Fear, fright, panic; அச்சம். ஏக்கம் . . . அமராபதிக்குஞ்செய் மதுராபுரி (மீனாட். பிள்ளைத். 77). 3. Craving, eager desire; ஆசை.
ஏக்கம் ēkkam-> ஏக்கறவு ēkkaṟavu, n. Desire, lust; இச்சை. ஒருத்தி முலைக்கிடந்த வேக்கறவால் (கம் பரா. மாயாசன. 83).
ஏக்கம் ēkkam->ஏக்கறு-தல் ēkkaṟu-, v. 1. [T. ēkāru.] To suffer from weariness, to languish; இளைத்து இடைதல். கடைக்க ணேக்கற (சீவக. 1622). 2. To bow before superiors, as one seeking some favour at their hands; ஆசையால் தாழ்தல். ஏக்கற்றுங் கற்றார் (குறள், 395).--tr. To desire; விரும்புதல். மதியேக்கறூஉ மாசறு திருமு கத்து (சிறுபாண். 157).
ஏக்கம் ēkkam->எக்கியம் ekkiyam, n. Sacrifice, ceremony in which oblations are offered; யாகம். (திருவானைக். கோச்செங். 70.)
ஏக்கம் ēkkam->எச்சம்² eccam, n. எக்கியம். எச்சத் திமையோரை நிரவிட்டு (தேவா. 571, 4).
எச்சன் echchaṉ, n. 1. One who performs a sacrifice; யாகஞ்செய்வோன். தக்கனையு முனிந்தெச்சன் றலைகொண்டான்காண் (தேவா. 596, 9). 2. The deity supposed to be present at a sacrifice and to accept the offerings given; யாகதேவதை. இரிந்திடுகின்றதோ ரெச்சனென்பவன் (கந்தபு. யாகசங். 38).
எச்சம்² echcham->यजः yajḥ 1 A sacrifice. -2 Fire which is used for sacrifice.
எச்சம்² echcham-> यजस् yajas n. Ved. 1 Worship; -2 A sacrifice.
यजनम् yajanam 1 The act of sacrificing. -2 A sacrifice; -3 A place of sacrifice;
यजमान yajamāna a. Sacrificing, worshipping. -नः 1 A person who performs a regular sacrifice and pays its expenses; -2 A person who employs a priest or priests to sacrifice for him. -3 (Hence) A host, patron, rich man. -4 The head of a family. -5 The head of a tribe.
यजमानकः = यजमान.
यजाक yajākaa. Worshipping.
यजिः yajiḥ 1 A sacrificer. -2 The act of sacrificing. -3 A sacrifice;
எச்சன் echchaṉ-> यजिन् a. 1 A worshipper, sacrificer. -2 Honouring, adoring.
எச்சில் eccil , n. Leavings of sacrificial oblation made of pounded rice and offered in postsherds. புரோடாசம். முத்தீப் பேணிய மன்னெச்சில் (பரிபா. 5, 42).
எச்சம்² echcham-> எசு esu, n. Yajur-Vēda; யசுர்வே தம். இருக்கெசுக் சாமவேத நாண்மலர்கொண்டு (திவ். பெரியாழ். 5, 1, 6).
எசு esu-> यजुस् yajus 1 A sacrificial prayer or formula; -2 A text of the Yajurveda, or the body of sacred mantras in prose muttered at sacrifices; -3 N. of the Yajurveda. -4 Ved. Worship, oblation.
எச்சம்² echcham->எஞ்ஞம் eññam, n. See எக்கி யம். கிருக வெஞ்ஞ விதியினை (மச்சபு. அநுக்கிர. 26).
எஞ்ஞம் eññam-> यज्ञः yajñḥ 1 A sacrifice, sacrificial rite; any offering or oblation; -2 An act of worship, any pious or devotional act.
यज्ञिकः yajñikḥ The Palāśa tree.

यज्ञिन् yajñin a. Full of sacrifices.
यज्ञिय yajñiya a.1 Belonging to or fit for a sacrifice, sacrificial; -2 Sacred, holy, divine. -3 Adorable, worthy of worship. -4 Devout, pious. -यः 1 A god, deity. -2 The third or Dvāpara age. -3 The Udumbara tree. -यम् Implements or materials for sacrifice -Comp. -देशः the land of sacrifices; -शाला 1 a sacrificial hall. -2 a temple.

यज्ञीय yajñīya. a. Sacrificial;

यज्य yajya a. Fit to be worshipped, adorable. -ज्या, -ज्यम् 1 Worshipping. -2 A sacrifice.

यज्यु yajyu a. 1 Pious, devout. -2 Worshipping, adoring, honouring. -3 Sacrificing. -ज्युः 1 A priest familiar with the Yajurveda -2 The institutor of a sacrifice
यज्वन् yajvan a. (-यज्वरी f.) Sacrificing, worshipping, adoring &c. -m. 1 One who performs sacrifices in accordance with Vedic precepts, a per- former of sacrifices;
याजनम् yājanam The act of performing or conducting a sacrifice;
याजमानम् yājamānam That part of a sacrifice which is performed by the Yajamāna himself.
याजयितृ yājayitṛm. The officiating priest at a sacrifice.

याजः yājḥ 1 A sacrificer. -2 Boiled rice. -3 Food in general.

याजकः yājakḥ A sacrificer, a sacrificing priest;

याजनम् yājanam The act of performing or conducting a sacrifice;

याजमानम् yājamānam That part of a sacrifice which is performed by the Yajamāna himself.

याजयितृ yājayitṛ m. The officiating priest at a sacrifice.

याजिः yājiḥ The institutor of a sacrifice. -f. A sacrifice.

याजिन् yājin a. 1 (At the end of comp.) Sacrificing; -2 Worshipping, adoring.

याजुकः yājukḥ A sacrificer (as इष्टियाजुक); Bṛi. Up.1.5.2. .

याज्ञिक yājñika a. (-की f.) Belonging to a sacrifice; Bhāg.4.31.1. -कः 1 A sacrificer or a sacrificing priest. -2 A ritualist. -3 The Kuśa grass. -4 N. of several trees. -Comp. -आश्रयः N. of Viṣṇu.

याज्ञिय yājñiya a. 1 Sacrificial. -2 Fit for a sacrifice. -यः One skilled in sacrificial rites.

याज्य yājya a. 1 To be sacrificed. -2 Sacrificial. -3 One for whom a sacrifice is performed. -4 One who is allowed by Śāstras to sacrifice. -ज्यः 1 A sacrificer, the institutor of a sacrifice; Mb.13. 93.27. -2 The performer of a sacrifice for another. -ज्यम् The presents or fee received for officiating at a sacrifice. -ज्या a sacrificial text or verse, Ṛik (recited at the offering of an oblation);

याज्वनः yājvanḥ The son of a sacrificer.
ஏக்கம் ēkkam-> யாகம் yāgam, n.1. Sacrifice, 2. Worship; திருவாராதனம்.
யாகம் yāgam-> यागः yāgḥ 1 An offering, a sacrifice, an oblation; -2 Any cere- mony in which oblations are presented, with a direct reference to a deity; -3 Presentation, grant. -Comp. -कण्टकः a bad sacrificer -करणम् a sacrificial ceremony. -संप्रदानम् the recipient of a sacrifice. Kāśi. on P.IV.2.24. -सूत्रम् the sacrificial sacred thread.
Reasons of Yajna
Brahmins performed these ceremonies because they desired Dhakshina/Gifts on behalf of Kings who desired victory and without the state of enemy. Brahmins performed these ceremonies for Vysyas who desired wealth. Rarely these Brahmins performed it for Sudras too.
However the Sacrifice procedures of Brahmins are totally different from sacrifice/offering Tamil Country. However Sanskrit has borrowed these Tamil Words and Simple offering/sacrifice concepts. Further Sanskrit pandits and Brahmins have developed them as complicated sacrifice/offers.
Brahmin Priests:-
The Brahmins priests offered into the fire by enchanting Rigvedha to praise Demi gods like Indra, Agni, Varuna etc. Therefore the function of these Brahmin priests is to praise.
உல் ul [to praise)->புல் pul->(போல் Pol)->போற்று PoTTu/PoTRu = v. tr. 1. To praise, applaud; துதித்தல்.2. To worship; வணங்குதல். (பிங்.)
போற்று PoTTu/PoTRu -> போற்றி pōTTi . n. 1. Praise, applause, commendation; புகழ்மொழி. (W.) 2. Brahman temple-priest of Malabar; கோயிற் பூசைசெய்யும் மலையாளநாட்டுப் பிராமணன். (W.) 3. See போத்தி, 1.--int. Exclamation of praise; துதிச்சொல்வகை.
போற்றி pōTTi -> போத்தி pōtti, n. < போற்றி. Brahman temple-priest in Malabar;மலையாளத்திலுள்ள கோயிலருச் சகன். போற்றி pōTTi (PoTRi)-> होत्रा hōtrā होत्रा 1 A sacrifice. -2 Praise;-3 Ved. Speech. -4 The office of होतृक priest.
போற்றி pōTTi/pōTRi -> होत्रिन् hōtrin m. A sacrificing priest who offers the oblations.
போற்றி pōTTi/pōTRi -> होत्री hōtrī The offerer of oblations, one of the eight forms of Śiva; (P=H changes as in Tamil and Kannada)
போற்றி pōTTi/pōTRi->पोतृ pōtṛ m. 1 One of the sixteen officiating priests at a sacrifice (assistant of the priest called ब्रह्मन्).
போற்றி pōTTi/pōTRi->पोतृ pōtṛ->होतृ a. Sacrificing, offering oblations with fire; . -m. 1 A sacrificial priest, especially one who recites the prayers of the Ṛigveda at a sacrifice.
போற்றி pōTTi/pōTRi->होतृकः होत्रकः An assistant of the Hotṛi.
போற்று(PoTTu)->போற்றிமை pōTTimai , n. Honour, reverence; வணக்கம். (W.)
போற்று(PoTTu)->போத்தி, 1.--int. Exclamation of praise; துதிச்சொல்வகை.

போத்தி Poththi->(Poththai)->(Pochchai)->பூசை Poosai (Tamil) 1. Worship; homage to superiors; adoration of the gods with proper ceremonies; ஆராதனை.. 2. Taking meals, as of devotees;
பூசை->పూజ [ pūja ] or పూజనము pūja. n. Worship, reverence.
పూజకుడు pūjakuḍu. n. A worshipper, a priest.
பூசி-த்தல் pūsi-v. 1. To perform acts of ceremonial worship; 2. To treat courteously, reverence; 3. To caress, fondle;
பூசி-த்தல்->పూజించు or పూజచేయు pūjinṭṣu v. a. To worship, adore, do homage or obeisance to, reverence.
పూజ [ pūza ] pūḍza.
பூசை pūsai->పూజ (Pūja)->पूजा pūjā
பூசை + ஆரி (Pusai+aari)->பூசாரி (poosaari)
பூசாரிpūsāri-> పూజరి, పూజారి or పూజారివాడు pūjāri. (పూజ +అరి.) n. An officiating Brahmin or priest of a temple. అర్చకుడు. పూజారిసాని pūjāri-sāni. n. A priestess. Zacca. vi. 127.
பூசாலி pūsāli, n. பூசாரி. (யாழ். அக.).
ஆரி என்ற ஆண்பால் விகுதி தமிழ் மட்டும் உள்ளது. Cf/ஒப்பிடுக : தலை Talai +ஆரி āri -> தலையாரி Talaiyāri-> தலாரி తలారి [ talāri ] or తలవరి (Telugu) Village officer. āri is a Tamil Suffix and it is not available in Skt.

பூசாரி->Hindi पुजारी puja:ri: (nm) a worshipper, adorer; Hindu priest . No such word is available in Sanskrit.
பூசாரி-> (punjabi) PUJÁRÁ ਪੁਜਾਰਾ s. m. A worshipper, one who makes pújá, a priest.
பூசாரி-> (punjabi) PUJÁRÍ ਪੁਜਾਰੀ s. m. A worshipper, one who makes pújá, a priest.

பூசகன் pūsakaṉ -> (punjabi) PÚJAK ਪੂਜਕ s. m. A worshipper (of a devtá, or the Deity.)
In Skt for the word पूजक pūjaka the meanings are given as Honouring, adoring, worshipping, respecting &c. and not the priest.

Origin of Homa System:-
In Historical Times, peoples were depending upon fire for day to day domestic life.
அரணி¹ araṇi, n. Pieces of pipal or mesquit wood, used for kindling the sacred fire by attrition; தீக்கடைகோல். அரணி யின்புறத் தனலென (பாரத. சம்பவ. 7).
அரணி¹ araṇi->अरणिः araṇiḥ m., f. -णी f. A piece of wood (of the Śamī tree) used for kindling the sacred fire by attrition, the fire- producing wooden stick; -णी (dual) The two pieces of wood used in kindling the sacred fire. -णिः 1 The sun. -2 fire.
ஞெகிழி ñekiḻi , n. < id. 1. Fire-brand; கடைக்கொள்ளி. விடுபொறி ஞெகிழியிற் கொடிபட மின்னி (அகநா. 108). 2. Piece of wood used for kindling fire by friction; தீக்கடைகோல். கானவர் . . . ஞெகிழி பொத்த (குறிஞ்சிப். 226). 3. [T. negaḍi.] Fire; தீ. (பிங்.) 4. Fuel; விறகு. (பிங்.) They were forced to keep at home inside the fire place. It became the profession of certain people to keep and protect fire. Later it developed into Homa System. ஓம்பு-தல் ōmbu- , 5 v. [T. ōmu, K. ōvū, M. ōmbu.] tr. 1. To protect, guard, defend, save; பாதுகாத்தல். குடிபுறங் காத்தோம்பி (குறள், 549). 2. To preserve; to keep in mind; to cherish, nourish; பேணுதல். ஈற்றியாமை தன்பார்ப் போம்பவும் (பொருந. 186). 3. To remove, separate; to keep off; to ward off; தீதுவாராமற் காத்தல். 4. To dispel; பரிகரித்தல். எனைத்துங் குறுகுத லோம்பல் (குறள், 820). 5. To maintain, support; to cause to increase; to bring up; வளர்த்தல். கற்றாங் கெரியோம்பி (தேவா. 1, 1). ஓம்படு²-த்தல் ōmbaṭu-, v. tr. < ஓம்பு- + அடு¹- 1. To protect; பாதுகாக்குமாறு சேர்த்தல். சிறைப்புறமாக வோம்படுத்தது (சொல். பொ. 114, உரை). 2. To avoid; பரிகரித்தல். படைத்தலைக் கொள்ளா மை யோம்படுத்த வுயர்பு (பு. வெ. 7, 3, கொளு). 3. To confirm; to encourage; to cheer up; உறுதி கூறுதல். பூம்பொழிற்புறங்காவலனை யோம்படுத்தற்கும். ஓம்படை ōmbaṭai , n. < id. +. 1. Protection, safeguard; பாதுகாப்பு. ஓம்படையுளப்பட (தொல். பொ. 91). 2. Place of protection; பாதுகாக்குமிடம். அறனோம்படையும் (சிலப். 5, 179, அரும்.). 3. Place where eligious instruction is imparted; போதிக்குமிடம். (சிலப். 5, 179, உரை.) 4. Remedy; பரிகாரம். ஓம்படை யொன்றுஞ் செப் பாள் (சீவக. 232). 5. Keeping in mind, retaining in memory; மறவாமை. தலைவற் கோம்படைசாற்றல் (தஞ்சைவா. 139, உரை). ஓம்பு-தல் ōmbu-> (ஓம்பம் ōmbam)->ஓமம்² ōmam, n.1. Offering an oblation to the gods by pouring ghee, etc. into the consecrated fire; வேள்வித்தீயில் நெய் முதலி யன பெய்கை. ஓமம் வேள்வி யுதவி தவஞ்செபம் (சே துபு. சேதுச. 51). 2. Sacrifice; வேள்வி. (திவா.)
ஓமி-த்தல் ōmi-, 11 v. To perform the hōma
ஓமம்² ōmam-> होमः hōmḥ 1 Offering oblations to gods by throwing ghee into the consecrated fire, (one of the five daily Yajñas, to be performed by a Brāhmaṇa, called देवयज्ञ q. v.); -2 A burnt offering. -3 A sacrifice; -Comp. -अग्निः the sacrificial fire. -कर्मन् sacrificial act. -कल्पः mode of sacrificing. -कुण्डम् a hole in the ground for receiving the consecrated fire. -तुरङ्गः a sacrificial horse; -धानम् a sacrificial chamber. -धूमः the smoke of a burnt offering or sacrificial fire. -धेनुः a cow yielding milk for an oblation. -भस्मन् n. the ashes of a burnt offering. -भाण्डम् a sacrificial implement. -वेला the time for offering oblations. -शाला a sacrificial hall or chamber.
होमिः hōmiḥ 1 Clarified butter. -2 Fire.
होमिन् hōmin m. The offerer of an oblation, a sacrificer in general.
ஓமம்வளர்-த்தல் ōmam-vaḷar-, v. intr. < id. +. To kindle and feed the sacrificial fire, which should never be suffered to go out; ஓமஞ்செய்யுமாறு அக்கினிவளர்த்தல். ஓமகுண்டம் ōma-kuṇṭam, n. Pit dug out in the ground for keeping sacrificial fire; வேள்விக்குழி. (கந்தபு. அசுரர்யாக. 42.) ஓமசாந்தி ōma-sānti, n.Propitiating by fire; அக்கினிவளர்த்துச் சாந்திபண் ணுகை. ஓமசாலை ōma-sālai, n. Sacrificial hall; யாகசாலை. (சிலப். 10. 143, அரும்.) ஓமத்திரவியம் ōma-t-tiraviyam, n.Requisites for a sacrifice, including firewood; ஓமஞ்செய்யும் பொருள். ஓமமண்டபம் ōma-mạṇṭapam, n. Sacrificial hall; யாகசாலை. (திவா.) ஓமாக்கினி ōmākkiṉi, n.Sacrificial fire; வேள்வித்தீ. ஓமியம் ōmiyam, n. Sacrifice; யாகம். ஓமியஞ் செய்தங் குள்ளத் துணர்மினோ (தேவா. 432, 8). Cf. 1. எரிகொள்ளி eri-koḷḷi, n. < எரி¹- +. Firebrand; கடைக்கொள்ளி. எரிகொள்ளி எரிந்துவீழ வும் (புறநா. 41, உரை). எரியூட்டு-தல் eri-y-ūṭṭu-, v.To set fire to; தீக்கொளுத்துதல். இலங்கை யெரி யூட்டுபடலம். (கம்பரா.). எரியோம்பு-தல் eri-y-ōmbu-, v. To make offerings in the consecrated fire; அக்கினிகாரியஞ் செய்தல். கற்றாங்கெரியோம்பி (தேவா. 1, 1). எரிவளர்ப்போர் eri-vaḷarppōr, n. Brāhmans, who keep alive the consecrated fire by daily offering; பார்ப்பார். (பிங்.) 2.தீமுறை tī-muṟai, n. < id. +. Fire-sacrifice; அக்கினியிற் செய்யும் ஓமம். நான்மறை மரபிற் றீமுறை யொருபால் (சிலப். 5, 175). தீயோம்பு-தல் tī-y-ōmpu-, v. To tend the sacred fire; யாகக்கினி வளர்த் தல். தீயோம்பு கைம்மறையோர் (திவ். பெரியதி. 7, 9, 7). தீவளர்-த்தல் tī-vaḷar-, v. 1. To tend the sacred fire; வேதாக்கினி வளர்த் தல். 2. To light a fire, as in suttee; உடன்கட்டை யேறல்முதலியவற்றிற்கு அக்கினிவளர்த்தல். தீவளர்ப்போர் tī-vaḷarppōr, n. 1. Brahmins, as tending the sacred fire; [வைதீ காக்கினியைப் பேணுபவர்] அந்தணர். (சூடா.) 2. Ascetics; முனிவர். (யாழ். அக.) For Homa and Hotra, Sanskrit pandits give the meaning of offering into fire. However the primary function of the Brahmin is to tend the sacred fire by pouring ghee, etc. into the consecrated fire. ஓமம் ōmam-> होमः hōmḥ->(हुमः humḥ)-> हु hu 1 To offer or present (as oblation to fire); make an offering to or in honour of a deity (with acc.); sacrifice -2 To perform a sacrifice. -3 To eat.
हु hu-> हुत huta 1 Offered as an oblation to fire, burnt as a sacrificial offering; -2 One to whom an oblation is offered; Ś.4; R.2.71. -तः N. of Śiva. -तम् 1 An oblation, offering. -2 An Oblation to fire; द्वे देवानभाजय- दिति हुतं च प्रहुतं च Bṛi. Up.1.5.2; Bg.9.16. -Comp. -अग्निः a. who has made an oblation to fire; (-m.) a sacrificial fire. -अशः 1 fire. -2 N. of the number 'three'. -3 Plumbago Ceylanica (Mar. चित्रक). -अशनः 1 fire;-2 N. of Śiva. -3 the Chitraka tree. ˚सहायः an epithet of Śiva. -अशनी the full-moon day in the month of Phālguna (होलिका). -आशः fire; प्रदक्षिणीकृत्य हुतं हुताशम् R. 2.71. -जातवेदस् a. one who has made an oblation to fire. -भुज् m. fire; -वहः fire; . -होमः a Brāhmaṇa who has offered oblations to fire; (-मम्) a burnt offering
हु hu-> हुत huta -> हुतिः hutiḥ f. Offering oblations;
However the words हवः havḥ and हव्य havya havya were earlier used to denote food only, and thereafter the meaning of oblation was ascribed to them.Lets see. if havi denotes sacrifice, then हविर्यज्ञः should be suffering from punarukta dhosha/tautology, i.e. [हविस् havis An oblation or burnt offering in general+ यज्ञः yajñḥ any offering or oblation.
In Sanskrit Nighantu/Dictionary, हविर्यज्ञः is mentioned as a kind of sacrifice without explaining the nature. But if applies Tamil meaning, हविर्यज्ञः can be explained.

அவி¹-தல் avi- , 4 v. intr. 1. To be boiled, cooked by boiling or steaming; பாகமாதல்.

அவி²-த்தல் avi- , 11 v. tr. caus. of அவி¹-. 1. To boil in a liquid, cook by boiling or steaming; வேகச்செய்தல். அறுத்தவித் தாரச் சமைத்த பிள்ளைக் குகந்தார் (மறைசை. 20).]
அவி³ avi, n. 1. Offerings made to the gods in sacrificial fire; வேள்வித்தீயில் தேவர்க்குத் கொடுக்கும் உணவு (Food). (குறள், 413.) 2. Food; உணவு. அவி யடுநர்க்குச் சுவைபகர்ந் தேவி (பதினொ. திருவிடை. 7). 3. Boiled rice; சோறு. (சூடா.) 4. Ghee; நெய். (பிங்.)
அவி³ avi-> அவிசு avisu, n. 1. Offering made to the gods in sacrificial fire; வேள்வித் தீயில் தேவர்க்குக் கொடுக்கும் உணவு. (தக்கயாகப். 46, உரை.) 2. Ghee; நெய். (நாநார்த்த.) 3. Cooked rice, prepared without straining the conjee; கஞ்சிவடியாது சமைத்த சோறு. Loc.
அவிசு avisu-> हविस् havis 1 Clarified butter; -2 Water (boiled?). -3 Food (अन्न); -Comp. -अशनम् (हविरशनम्) devouring clarified butter or oblations.
அவியல் aviyal, n. 1. Boiling, cooking; பாகஞ்செய்கை. (பிங்.) 2. Food; உணவு. செந்தினையி னவியல் (கூர்மபு. கண்ணன்மண. 145). 3. Kind of vegetable dish; கறிவகை. 4. Swelter, sultriness; புழுக்கம். 5. Soreness of the mouth; வாய்ப்புண். (W.)
அவை²-த்தல் avai-, 11 v. tr. [Tu. abay.] 1.To cook, boil; அவித்தல். (பிங்.)

அவ்வியம்³ avviyam n. Oblation offered to the gods; தேவர்க்கிடும் பலி. (மச் சபு. சிராத்தானு. 2.)
அப்பியம் appiyam, n. Oblation to the gods; தேவர்க்கிடப்படும் அவிசு. (அறநெறி. 26.)
அவ்வியம்³ avviyam-> हव्य havya a. To be offered in oblations. -व्यम् 1 Clarified butter. -2 An oblation or offering to the gods (opp. कव्य q. v.). -3 An oblation in general; -व्या A cow; -Comp. -आशः fire. -कव्यम् oblations to the gods and to the Manes, or spirits of deceased ancestors; -पाकः an oblation cooked with butter and milk, or the pot in which it is cooked.
அவி³ avi-> हवः havḥ 1 An oblation, a sacrifice;
அவி³ avi-> हवः havḥ-> हवनम् havanam 1 Offering an oblation with fire. -2 A sacrifice, an oblation. -3 A sacrificial ladle. -नः 1 Fire. -2 A fire-receptacle. -Comp. -आयुस् m. fire.
அவி³ avi-> हवः havḥ-> हवनी havanī = हवित्री q. v.
हवनीय havanīya . Sacrificial. -यम् 1 Anything fit for an oblation. -2 Clarified butter or ghee.
हवित्री havitrī A hole made in the ground for holding the sacred fire (to which oblations are offered).
அவி³ avi-> அவிசு avisu-> हविस् havis An oblation or burnt offering in general
அவி³ avi-> அவிசு avisu-> हविस् havis-> हविष्मत् haviṣmat a. Possessed of oblations.
हविष्मती haviṣmatī N. of the mythical cow Kāmadhenu;
हविष्यम् haviṣyam 1 Anything fit for an oblation; -2 Clarified butter. -3 Wild rice. -4 Rice mixed with ghee. -Comp. -अन्नम् food fit to be eaten during certain holidays or days of fast. -आशिन्, -भुज् m. fire.
Therefore the meaning of हविर्यज्ञः is nothing but food oblation into the sacred fire.






Difference between original Tamilian offerings and Brahminical offerings.
Sacrifice Non Brahminical Tamilian offerings Brahminical offerings
Types Grains, Food (Veg and Non Veg), Domestic Animals (Goat, Chicken)-live or killed, body parts, one's own life, and blood. Food (rice, ghee), Animal (Horse), human being's life (Naramedha)
to whom God Fire, in the name of God
by whom Generally Farmer for Brahmins
for whom Nil King, also Merchants, rarely Sudra
intention to thank God for an abundant harvest and cattle Fee(Dhakshina)/Wifes to be given by King, Merchants, Wealthy Sudra
place of offering alter, and fire pit (which is later period) fire pit
Requirement of Agent Nil Brahmin
Procedure Simple language Complicated procedure with Rigvedha chanting
expenses very less Very high


Why Ravana and his Associates were called as Rakshasa or Arakkan or Iraakathan or Nisachara?

Sanskrit could not explain the origin of Rakshasa (demon) and it is showing the root Raskha (to protect, preserve) to that rakshasa. They could not explain how they are inter related.

The reason is the said rakshasa (Ravana and his men in Dandakaranya) were doing raksha (protection) against immoral animal sacrifices by preventing the yajnas done by so called sages like viswamitra. They were preserver of law and order in South India. They prevented the sacrifices, which is to totally in contrary to South Indian Sacrifices. Hence they prevented the sacrifices and not the penance of the sages. Indra alone obstructed the penance of sages including viswamitra whose sacrifice alone was prevented by so-called rakshasa on ground of animal or human sacrifices in the initial stages of yajna. They did so only in the Dandakaranya region only. They did not prevented the Aswamedha Yajna done by Rama’s brother-in-law Sage Rishya Shringa for the sake of Dasaratha.

The etymology of the word Rakshasa from raksha is as follows.

Prevention of evil thing always considered as protection or preservation of good thing. Wearing an Amulet or raksha round the wrist in India is considered as prevention of evil thing and protection of one’s wellness.

The word Raksha and Rakshasa are derived from the Tamil as follows.

உல் ul (to leave, remove, go, prevent, reduce, destroy)-> அல் al-> (அர்) ar)->
அரக்கன் arakkaṉ , n. Demon; இராக்கதன். (பிங்.)

रक्षस् rakṣas 1 An evil spirit, a demon, an imp, a goblin;. -2 Ved. Hurt, injury. -Comp. -ईशः, -नाथः an epithet of Rāvaṇa.

ARAKAN is the modern name, in the ancient times the country was known as Rohang or Rakhapura or Rakhaingpryi. The earliest inhabitants of Arakan belong to the Negrito group. Burmese mention them in the Arakanese Chronicle as Rakkhasas or bilus (cannibals), which is similar to the North Indians’ description about South Indian/Ravana or his associates. The word Arakan is definitely of Tamil origin having the same meaning in both these languages. It is the corruption of the word Arakan. But Ibn Batuta wrote the name of Arakkan as Arkan. The name Rakhine is another name of Arakan. It is derived from Tamil word Arakkan.



















Area of Arakan
Arakan is situated between India in the North, Burma in the East and People's Republic of Bangladesh in the West. To the south, it extends up to Haigri Islands and is bounded on the southwest by the Bay of Bengal.The area of Arakan was more than 20,000 sq. ml. till the British period. But, Burmese ruler, without the consent of Arakanese people, split up a north western Arakan Hill Tracts area bordering India and a southern most part of Arakan (from Kyauk Chaung River to Cape Negaris) from the Arakan mainland. Due to these partitions,it comprise less than half of historic Arakan territory. Arakanese, however, use the term "Arakan" to mean the area, which was historically and traditionally known as Arakan before the 1784 Burmese invasion. Despite over 200 years of Burmese occupation of Arakan, the Arakanese peoples refuse to be conquered and subjugated by the Burmese. Arakan independent movement started just after it lost independent and is carrying on until now.
























It seems that the Tamil word Arakkan is still an ethnic name in Southern Myanmar.
In the old poems and songs the Rakhine people are portrayed as a great nation, proud of possessing high morale, and are reputed for being pious and just. They are also said to be brave and enterprising.
The Greeks attributed the name of Argyre (Land of -Silver) to Rakhine, while the Tibetans called it as Kawky. The Indians and Europeans always referred it as Arakan/Arracan. Indians often call the Rakhine people as the Maghs, since they are alleged to be the descendants of the Sakya clan of Magadha. Maurice Collis fondly called it as The Land of the Great Image' - or the land of the Mahamuni Buddha Image which was carried off by Bodaw Maung Wain, a Burmese feudal warlord, and which is enshrined at the Arakan Temple in Mandalay. The Source.

The Name Rakhine is a name that signifies a people and also the land they live in. The name actually has a story of gradual evolution. In the old palm-leaf Razwang it is written : 'Taking shelter in the rain foests and hills, conquering the local cannibals or Rakshasas, they in time attained the name of Rakhine, and preserved the name very fondly.'

Again in other writings we find that because of their unbroken tradition of safeguarding their national indentity the name of Arakkha' or preservation has been conferred upon them. 'Arakkha' in time, after natural modifications, changed into Rakkha, Ftakkliaing.

The name of the land also has an interesting story of evolution. The process was rather like a metamorphosis, changing a shade here and another there.

In the tenth century, Ananda Candra pillar Sanskrit inscription the land is mentioned as 'Araksadesa'. This stone pillar is now preserved at the Shit-thaung temple, Mrauk U. In the early histories Rakkhapura was the name ascribed to it. In some traditional histories, the name of ' Mahimsaka-taing' is also given to the land. From these old stone inscriptions and chronicles, we can draw an inference that Rakhaing is aconsiderably ancient land with a somewhat accurate history.

'Defeating the Raksasas' as recorded in the Razwang probably means 'overpowering the aboriginal cannibal tribes' who were no better than 'demons' in their way of life. Compared with E B Havell's observations this statement can help us to conclude that the Raksasas were actually the ethnic Dravidians.

Again in other writings we find that because of their unbroken tradition of safeguarding their national indentity the name of Arakkha' or preservation has been conferred upon them. 'Arakkha' in time, after natural modifications, changed into Rakkha, Ftakkliaing. The name of the land also has an interesting story of evolution. The process was rather like a metamorphosis, changing a shade here and another there.

In the tenth century, Ananda Candra pillar Sanskrit inscription the land is mentioned as 'Araksadesa'. This stone pillar is now preserved at the Shit-thaung temple, Mrauk U. In the early histories, Rakkhapura was the name ascribed to it. In some traditional histories, the name of ' Mahimsaka-taing' is also given to the land. From these old stone inscriptions and chronicles, we can draw an inference that Rakhaing is a considerably ancient land with a somewhat accurate history.
உல் ul-> இல் il-> இர ira-> இரட்சகன் iraṭcakaṉ , n. 1. Protector, preserver, guardian; காப்பாற்றுபவன். 2. Saviour; உய்விப்பவன். Chr.

உல் ul-> இல் il-> இர ira-> இரட்சி-த்தல் iraṭci- , 11 v. tr.. 1. To preserve, protect, guard, defend; காப்பாற்று தல். 2. To save; உய்வித்தல். Chr.

இரட்சி -> இரட்சிப்பு iraṭcippu , n. 1. Preserving, protecting, saving; காப்பாற்றுகை. 2. Salvation; உய்வு. Chr.

இரட்சி ->இரட்சை iraṭcai , n. 1. Protection; காப்பு. ஏணத் தமிழிற் கிரட்சையாம் (தைலவ. கடவுள். 3). 2. Amulet, charm: mark made with sacred ashes, etc., as a protection; காப்பாக இடு வது 3. Sacred ashes; திருநீறு.

உல் ul-> இல் il-> இர ira-> இரக்கி-த்தல் irakki-, v. இரட்சித்தல். இரக்கிக்கை யாலே யுயிரினை (சைவச. பொது. 204).

உல் ul-> இல் il-> இர ira-> இரக்கி-> रक्ष् rakṣ 1 P. 1 To protect, guard, take care of, watch, tend (as cattle); rule, govern (as earth. -2 To keep, not to divulge;. -3 To preserve, save, keep away from, spare (often with abl.); -4 To avoid;.2. -5 To observe (as a law, duty). -6 To beware of.

இரக்கி -> இரக்கை irakkai , n. 1. Amulet or charm; காப்பு. 2. Sacred ashes, as a charm or protection against evil; திருநீறு. இரக்கையெ னும் பேரா மிதற்கு (சைவச. பொது. 204).

இரக்கை irakkai ->रक्षा rakṣā 1 Protection, preservation; guarding; 5. -2 Care, security. -3 A guard, watch. -4 An amulet or mystical object used as a charm, any preservative; q. v. below. -4 A tutelary deity. -5 Ashes. -6 A piece of silk or thread fastened round the wrist on particular occasions, especially on the full-moon day of Śrāvaṇa, as an amulet or preservative; (रक्षी also in this sense).

राक्षस rākṣasa. Belonging to or like an evil spirit, demoniacal, partaking of a demon's nature; -सः 1 A demon, an evil spirit, a goblin, fiend, imp..

Like a security guard during night time to guard, these Lankan men and other similar persons were also called as one who moves about to prevent sacrifices involving animal killing or slaughter in Dandakaranya (only and not Kosala or other Aryan kingdoms) during time and words to denote that actions were also evolved.

இரவு, இரா= Night
கதன்= one who moves
திரிவோன்= one who moves/roams

இரவிற்றிரிவோன் iraviṟṟirivōṉ , n. < இரவு¹ + திரி-. Demon or goblin, one who moves about during night-time; அரக்கன். இர விற் றிரிவோர்கட்கிறை (தேவா. 111, 8). இராக்கதன் irākkataṉ n. Giant, demon or goblin; அரக்கன். (திவ். பெரியாழ். 4, 4, 8.) இராக்கதி irākkati , n. Giantess, female goblin; நிசாசரன் nisāsaraṉ , n. Lit., night-rover. [இரவில் திரிவோன்] 1. Asura; அசுரன். நிசாசரர்மேற் பேராழிகொண்ட பிரான் (திவ். இயற். 1, 83). 2. Rākṣasa; அரக்கன். நிசாசரனுருப்புணர் நெருப்பு நீர்மையான் (கம்பரா. யுத்த. மந்திரப். 42). 3 நிசாசரி nisāsari , n. 1. Rākṣasī; அரக்கி. ஓர் நிசாசரிதான் வந்தாளை (திவ். இயற். சிறிய. ம. 39). 2. Owl; கூகை. (பிங்.) 3. Whore; வேசி. (யாழ். அக.) நிசிசரன் nisi-saraṉ , n.e நிசாசரன். நிசிசரன்முடி யுடைதர (தேவா. 615, 8). क्षपा -चरः (Kshapaa charah) moving about by night ,a demon, goblin. निशा-चर a. (-रा, री f.) moving about by night, night stalker. रजनिः rajaniḥ नी nī 1 Night;. -Comp. -चरः 1 a nightstalker, demon, goblin. -2 a thief. -3 a night-watcher. रात्रिः rātriḥ त्री trī 1 Night;. -2 The darkness of night. -3 Turmeric; Mb.13.136.25. -4 One of the four forms or bodies of Brahmā. -Comp. -चरः (also -रात्रिंचर) (-री f.) 1 'a night rover', robber, thief. -2 a watchman, patrol, guard. -3 a demon, ghost, evil spirit; -चर्या 1 night-roving. -2 a nightly act or ceremony. वनेचर vanēcara : Dwelling in a wood.-रः 1 A forester, woodman; -2 An ascetic, a hermit.-3 A wild beast.-4 A sylvan, satyr.-5 A demon. இருசி irusi , n. A female demon to whom sacrifices of rice, milk and blood are offered after sunset and which are then eaten by the devotees the same night; ஒரு பெண்பிசாசு. இருசியுடைமை யிராத்தங்க லாகாது. (W.) Sacrifice and Indra It is usually believed that Indra is claimed as master of sacrifice, because of concocted stories of fraud Brahmins. But it is actually denotes Indra’s Brother Viṣṇu who became one of the main God’s of Hinduism. Viṣṇu also called as upendra as he is the younger brother of Indra உபேந்திரன் upēndiraṉ : n. Viṣṇu திருமால். முச்சகமளந்த வுபேந்திரன் (தணி கைப்பு. விடை. 18). उपेन्द्रः upēndrḥ N. of Viṣṇu or as the younger brother of Indra अज् aj 1 P. To drive, lead. अज् -> अजः ajḥ 1 N. of Viṣṇu-Mover, leader (Ved.), said of Indra.

It seems that due to sharing of the greatness, there is some enmity existed between Viṣṇu and Indra. The said Viṣṇu acquired the titles of Indra. From the Tamil Lexicon, It seems that both Indra and Viṣṇu are black.
The title of Indra was shared by upendra i.e. Vishnu, he is the real man who participated in the yajnas.
கரியவன்¹ kariyavaṉ ,, n. < கருமை. 1. Dark man; கரியநிறமுடையவன். 2. Viṣṇu; திருமால். வாழிய கரியவன் (கம்பரா. பள்ளி. 55). 3. Indra; இந்திரன். பீடிகை கரியவ னிட்ட காரணம் (மணி. 25, 55). 4. Saturn; சனி. கரியவன் புகையினும் (சிலப். 10, 102). 5. Robber, thief; கள்வன். (சூடா.) காரி¹ kāri , n. < கருமை. 1. Blackness; கருமை. (பிங்.) 2. That which is black; கருநிற முடையது. (திவா.) 3. King-crow; கரிக்குருவி. கட்சி யுட் காரி சலுழ்ம் (பு. வெ. 1, 3). 4. Crow; காக்கை. (திவா.) 5. Saturn; சனி. காரிவாரத்தில் (குற்றா. தல. மூர்த்தி. 30). 6. Venom, poison; நஞ்சு. காரியுண் டிக் கடவுள தியற்கையும் (மலைபடு. 83). 7. Black bull; கரிய எருது. சுரிநெற்றிக் காரி (கலித். 101, 21). 8. Black lead; காரீயம். (சங். அக.) 9. Vāsudēva; வாசுதேவன். செங்கட்காரி (பரிபா. 3, 81). 10. Aiyanār; ஐயனார். (திவா.) 11. Bhairava; வயிர வன். (திவா.) 12. Indra; இந்திரன். காரி விருத்திர னைக் கொள்வினையும் (திருவாரூ. 18). மால்³ māl , n. 1. Greatness; பெருமை. (பிங்.) சினமால் விடையுடையான் (திரு வாச. 34, 3). 2. Great man; பெருமையுடையவன். மாமஞ்ஞை யூர்ந்து நின்றமால் (சீவக. 286). 3. Viṣṇu; திருமால். நீர் செல நிமிர்ந்த மாஅல் போல (முல்லைப். 3). 4. Arhat; அருகன். இன்பக் கடலாக்கித் தரு மாலை (சீவக. 961). (சூடா.) 5. Indra; இந்திரன். தன்றிரு மகனெனப் பெற்ற மால் (குமர. பிர. முத்து. காப். 6). (பிங்.) மாலோன் mālōṉ, n. < மால்³. 1. Viṣṇu; திருமால். அப்புரவலனு மாலோனெனி லவளுந் திரு வாமெனில் (தஞ்சைவா. 366). (சூடா.) 2. Indra; இந்திரன். 3. Mercury; புதன். (சங். அக.) हरिः hariḥ - 1 N. of Viṣṇu; हरिर्यथैकः- पुरुषोत्तमः स्मृतः R.3.49. -2 N. of Indra; प्रजिधाय समाधि- वैकुण्ठः vaikuṇṭhḥ 1 An epithet of Viṣṇu;. -2 Of Indra. -3 Holy . इन्द्रः कर्मन् indrḥ karman m. An epithet of Viṣṇu (performing Indra's deeds); Because of the same the words denoting Indra are also denoting Viṣṇu As against the name of Viṣṇu, Indra is called as jiṣṇu (though the word jiṣṇu was denotes Viṣṇu too, it is exclusively used to denote Indra. Due that enmity, Viṣṇu’s wife Lakshmi was called as Indirā which is against Indra’s wife Indrāṇi. The fraud Brahmins @ Paarppaans claim that the title "Lord of sacrifice" may refer to either Indra or Visnu. In reality, Viṣṇu alone was worshiped by Brahmins in the yajna performances. However the words which denote Yajna denote the name of Viṣṇu and not Indra. It is evident in Prof. Apte’s Sanskrit Dictionary. kratuḥक्रतुः [कृ-कतु Uṇ.1.77] 1 A sacrifice; क्रतोरशेषेण फलेन युज्यताम् R.3.65; शतं क्रतूनामपविघ्नमाप सः 3.38; M.1.4; Ms.7.79.-2 An epithet of Viṣṇu. क्रतुः पुरुषः kratuḥ puruṣḥ, an epithet of Viṣṇu http://dsal1.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.2:1:1707.apte क्रतुः kratuḥ क्रतुः A sacrifice इज्यः ijyḥ An epithet of Viṣṇu. इज्या ijyā 1 A sacrifice; इष्टः iṣṭaḥ 1 A lover, husband, beloved person; -2 A friend;. -3 N. of a tree (एरंड). -4 N. of Viṣṇu. -5 A sacrifice. यजुस् yajus n. [यज्-उसि] 1 A sacrificial prayer or formula; -2 A text of the Yajurveda, or the body of sacred mantras in prose muttered at sacrifices;. -3 N. of the Yajurveda. -4 Ved. Worship, oblation. -Comp. -उदरः Ved. an epithet of Brahman. -पतिः N. of Viṣṇu. यज्ञः [यज्-भावे न] 1 A sacrifice, sacrificial rite; any offering or oblation;. -2 An act of worship, any pious or devotional act. -3 N. of Agni. -4 Of Viṣṇu; ऋषयो यैः पराभाव्य यज्ञघ्नान् यज्ञमीजिरे Bhāg.3.22.3. यज्ञिकः yajñikḥयज्ञिकः The Palāśa tree. यज्ञिन् yajñinयज्ञिन् a. Full of sacrifices. -m. N. of Viṣṇu यज्वन् yajvan यज्वन् a. (-यज्वरी f.) [यज्-क्वनिप्] Sacrificing, worshipping, adoring &c. -m. 1 One who performs sacrifices in accordance with Vedic precepts, a per- former of sacrifices; नीपान्वयः पार्थिव एष यज्वा R.6.46; 1.4;3.39;11.12; Ku.2.46; hence यज्वनां पतिः = The moon. -2 N. of Viṣṇu. याज्ञिक yājñika याज्ञिक a. (-की f.) [यज्ञाय हितम्, यज्ञः प्रयोजनमस्य वा ठक्] Belonging to a sacrifice; Bhāg.4.31.1. -कः 1 A sacrificer or a sacrificing priest. -2 A ritualist. -3 The Kuśa grass. -4 N. of several trees अश्वत्थ, खदिर, पलाश, &c. -Comp. -आश्रयः N. of Viṣṇu. Therefore Viṣṇu alone relates to Yajna or sacrifice practices and not Indra. Our indra is called as Destoryer of sacrifice or yajna (Makhahan) like Lord Siva who did in Daksa yajna. मख a. [मख् संज्ञायां घ] Ved. 1 Adorable, fit to be worshipped with oblations. -2 Lively, active, cheerful. -खः 1 A sacrificial rite; अकिंचनत्वं मखजं व्यनक्ति R.5.16; Ms.4.24; R.3.39. -2 A festival. -3 Worship; वैदिक- स्तान्त्रिको मिश्र इति मे त्रिविधो मखः Bhāg.11.27.7. -Comp. -अंशभाज् m. a god. -अग्निः, -अनलः sacrificial fire. -अन्नम् the seed of Euryale Ferox (कमलबीज). -असुहृद् m. an epithet of Śiva. -क्रिया a sacrificial rite. -त्रातृ m. an epithet of Rāma; घ्राणं पातु मखत्राता Rām. stotra 5. -द्विष् m. a demon, a Rākṣasa; तत्र यावधिपती मखद्विषां तौ शरव्यमकरोत् स नेतरान् R.11.27;3.45; U.5.4. -द्वेषिन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -प्रभुः m. the Soma plant. -मृगव्याधः an epithet of Śiva; मखमृगव्याधोत्तमाङ्गस्थल- स्थास्नु ...... N.22.14. -हन् n. an epithet 1 of Indra. -2 of Śiva. Our Indra is not drinker of spirituous liquor. It is Viṣṇu who is the drinker of liquor. अमृतपः amrutapah. 1 a drinker of nectar' a god or deity. -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -3 one who drinks wine; इरा irā . 1 The earth. -2 Speech. -3 The goddess of speech, Sarasvatī, -4 Water. -5 food; इरावतीं धारिणीं भूधराणाम् Mb.13. 26.95. -6 Spirituous liquor. -7 Any drinkable fluid; a draught (especially of milk). -8 Refreshment, comfort (Ved. in the last three senses). -9 N. of one of the wives of Kaśyapa. -Comp. -ईशः 1 N. of Varuṇa, N.of Viṣṇu, Therefore the Indra mentioned in the Brahmins’ Veda is Viṣṇu (Upendra) and not his brother Indra. Indra in the Tamil Country The first chapter of the Porulatikaram of Tolkappiyam classifies the landscape of Tamilnadu into four regions name Mullai, (forest region) Kurunci (hill region), Marutam (Fertile region) and Neytal (coastal region) and (and also Palai the Desert region). This is an important classification that denotes the whole land of Tamilnadu. The Tolkappiaym in Agattinai also mentions presiding gods for each of the region as follows Mullai – Thirumal (Krishna) Kurunji – Ceyon (Murugan) Marudam - Vendan (Indran) Neidal - Varuna (Varunan) Palai – Korravai மாயோன் மேய காடுறை உலகமும் சேயோன் மேய மைவரை உலகமும் வேந்தன் மேய தீம்புனல் உலகமும் வருணன் மேய பெருமணல் உலகமும் முல்லை குறிஞ்சி மருதம் நெய்தலெனச் சொல்லிய முறையாற் சொல்லவும் படுமே (தொல். அகத். நூற்பா. 5)-Tolkappiyam. Aga.Sutra.5 Mayon meya kadurai ulakamum Ceyon meya mai varai ulakamum Vendhan meya tim punal ulakamum Varunan meya perumanal ulakamum Mullai Kurunji, Marudam Neidal Ennum colliya muraiyal collavum patume Therefore Both Indra and his younger brother upendra or Viṣṇu are regarded as Gods of Marudam and Mullai Lands in Tamil Country. Orampogiyam in his poem in the Sangam Tamil Book called Ainguru NooRu (ஐங்குறு நூறு), has mentioned about festival to honour Indra . இந்திர விழாவிற் பூவின் அன்ன புன்தலைப் பேடை வரி நிழல் அகவும் இவ்வூர் மங்கையர்த் தொகுத்து, இனி எவ்வூர் நின்றன்று மகிழ்ன நின் தேரே& தீவகச்சாந்தி tīvaka-c-cānti , n. < dvīpaka +. An ancient festival celebrated to propitiate Indra at Kāviri-p-paṭṭiṉam; பண்டைக் காலத்தில் காவிரிப்பூம்பட்டினத்தில் நடைபெற்று வந்த இந்திரவிழா. தீவகச்சாந்தி செய்தரு நன்னாள் (மணி 1, 35). மருதக்கிழவன் maruta-k-kiḻavaṉ , n. < மருதம் +. 1. Chief of an agricultural tract; மருதநிலத்தலைவன். 2. Indra, as the presiding deity of marutam; [மருதநிலத்துக்கு உரிய கட வுள்] இந்திரன். (பிங்.) மருதக்கிழவன் maruta-k-kiḻavaṉ , n. < மருதம் +. 1. Chief of an agricultural tract; மருதநிலத்தலைவன். 2. Indra, as the presiding deity of marutam; [மருதநிலத்துக்கு உரிய கட வுள்] இந்திரன். (பிங்.) மருதநாதன் maruta-nātaṉ , n. < id. +. Indra, as lord of the agricultural tract; இந்திரன். (நாமதீப. 61.) Lord Indra was regarded as great in code of Conduct. Poet Tiruvalluvar has cited Indra as evidence of Behaving in conformity with the canons of right conduct laid down for observance. ஐந்தவித்தான் ஆற்றல் அகல்விசும்பு ளார்கோமான் இந்திரனே சாலுங் கரி. • புலன்களை அடக்க முடியாமல் வழிதவறிச் சென்றிடும் மனிதனுக்குச் சான்றாக இந்திரன் விளங்கி, ஐம்புலன்களால் ஏற்படும் ஆசைகளைக் கட்டுப்படுத்தியதால் வான்புகழ் கொண்டவர்களின் ஆற்றலை எடுத்துக் காட்டுகிறான். Their might who have destroyed 'the five', shall soothly tell Indra, the lord of those in heaven's wide realms that dwell. Explanation: Indra, the king of the inhabitants of the spacious heaven, is himself, a sufficient proof of the strength of him who has subdued his five senses. If he cohabitated with Agaligai @ Ahalya, he would not be cited in the book TirukkuRal by Tiruvalluvar. The so called misbehaviour should be that of his brother upendra or Viṣṇu only as he did the same to Tulasi wife of Sankhacuda and not Indra. நீத்தார் பெருமை ஒழுக்கத்து நீத்தார் பெருமை விழுப்பத்து வேண்டும் பனுவல் துணிவு. • ஒழுக்கத்தில் உறுதியான துறவிகளின் பெருமை, சான்றோர் நூலில் விருப்பமுடனும், உயர்வாகவும் இடம் பெறும். Poet Tiruvalluvar said that The end and aim of all treatises is to extol beyond all other excellence, the greatness of those who, while abiding in the rule of conduct peculiar to their state, have abandoned all desire. If he is culpable for the alleged misbehaviour, he would not mention Indra in his book. As he is gem, Tiruvalluvar has mentioned him in that book. நிறைமொழி மாந்தர் பெருமை நிலத்து மறைமொழி காட்டி விடும். • சானறோர்களின் பெருமையை, இந்த உலகில் அழியாமல் நிலைத்து நிற்கும் அவர்களது அறவழி நூல்களே எடுத்துக் காட்டும். The might of men whose word is never vain, The 'secret word' shall to the earth proclaim. Therefore Tiruvalluvar has rightly mentioned about Indra. Indra and Heaven The Moron Brahmins are claiming that Devas including Inda are immortals. अमर amara a Undying, immortal, imperishable;. - अमरः 1 A god, deity. - अमरा 1 The residence of Indra (cf. अमरावती). If they are immortal, their population should be more than population in the earth. These Moron Brahmins could not explain such immortals’ adventures. In Ancient Tamil Nadu, there was a custom of erecting "Hero Stones" or "Nadu kal" and worshiping them, in remembrance of the warriors who sacrificed their life in the battlefield. This worship of warrior became the worship of God. Later those fraud Brahmins fabricated stories and claimed Gods are immortal. If so, why those alleged Aryan Gods are drinking amrita for which gives immortality? Therefore the claims of those fraud Brahmins are false. நடுகல் nadu-kal , n. [ நடு- +.கல்]. Memorial tablet set up over the grave of a deceased warrior and inscribed with his figure and achievements; போரில் இறந்த வீரரின் உருவமும் பெயரும் பீடுமெழுதிப் பெரும்பாலும் அவரைப் புதைத்தவிடத் தில் நடுஞ்சிலை. காட்சி கால்கோ ணீர்ப்படை நடுகல் (தொல். பொ. 60). Warrior worship covered worshipping of Indra as he is a warrior king of Tamil Country (Marudam region). The origion of worshiping warrior is nothing but the acknowledgment or recognition of the sacrifice of the warrior in the battle field. Compare. வீரசுவர்க்கம் vīra-suvarkkam , n. Warrior's heaven; இறந்த வீரரடையுஞ் சுவர்க்கபதவி. वीर vīra a. 1 Heroic, brave. -2 Mighty, powerful. -3 Excellent, eminent. – वीर: 1 A hero, warrior, champion; वीर लोकः Indra's heaven Tamil Poet Paranar has mentioned in his poet about the worriors’ entering into the heaving with a body pierced by lance; "நீளிலை யெஃக மறுத்த உடம்போடு வாராவுலகம் புகுதல்" . அமர்³ amar , n. 1. War, battle; யுத்தம். (சூடா.) 2. Field of battle; போர்க்களம். அஞ்சுவரு தானை யமரென்னு நீள்வயலுள் (பு. வெ. 8, 5). 3. Rage, fury, crisis, as of a disease, violence or paroxysm, as of fever; உக்கிரம். (W.) அமர்-த்தல் amar- , 11 v. To be at strife; மாறுபடுதல். பேதைக் கமர்த்தன கண் (குறள், 1084). அமர் amar -> அமர்க்களம் amar-k-kaḷam , n. < id. +. 1. Field of battle; போர்க்களம். (இரகு. திக்கு. அமர் amar -> அமர்கொடு-த்தல் amar-koṭu- , v. To fight, wage war against; பொருதல். கலுழனோ டெதிர்மலைந் தமர்கொடுத் தனர்களால் (உப தேசகா. சூராதி. 22).

அமர் amar -> அமரநாயகம் amara-nāyakam , n. 1. Commandership; தண்டத் தலைமை. (M. E. R. 36 of 1928-9.) 2. Grant of land to the commander of an army; தண்டத் தலைவனுக்கு விடப்படும் நிலம். (I. M. P. Tn. 407.)

அமர் amar -> அமரன் amaran, n. Warrior, one who gives battle; போர்செய்வோன். (பெருங். உஞ்சைக். 37, 202.)

அமர் amar -> அமராபுரம் amarā-puram , n. Indra's capital, Amarāvatī; அமராவதி. உம்ப ராளு மமராபுரந்தவிர (தக்கயாகப். 17).

அமர் amar -> அமரம்&sup4; amaram, n.. [Telugu. amaramu.] Land or revenue granted in ancient times by a chief to his retainers for military service; அமரக்காரருக்கு விடப்பட்ட சீவிதம். (I.M.P. Ct. 344.) 2. Command of one thousand foot-soldiers; ஆயிரங்காலாளை ஆளுகை. (W.)

அமர் amar -> அமரி² amari , n. Durgā, as a war goddess; துர்க்கை. (பிங்.)

அமர் amar -> அமரோர் amarōr , n dēvas; அமரர். (திருப்பு. 518.)

அமர் amar -> அமரியோன் amariyōṉ , n. Warrior; போர்வீரன். அமரி யோர்களொ ரைம்பது வெள்ளத்தர் (கந்தபு. காவலா. 15).

அமர் amar -> அமருலகம் amarulakam n.. Svarga; சுவர்க்கம். (திவ். பெரியதி. 2, 2, 10.)

அமர் amar -> அமரேசன் amarēsan , n. 1. Indra; இந்திரன். (கந்தபு. தெய்வ. 19.) 2. Jupiter, as preceptor of gods; வியாழன். (விதான. குணா. 37.)

அமர்³ amar -> அமரர்² amarar, n. dēvas, one of patiṉeṇ-kaṇam, q.v.; வானோர். அமரர்ச் சுட்டியும் (தொல். பொ. 146).

அமர் amar -> அமர் amar -> அமரர்கோன் amarar-kōṉ , n. Indra, as king of gods; இந்திரன். (திவ். திருவாய். 10, 2, 6.)

அமர் amar -> அமரர்பதி¹ amarar-pati , n. Indra, as lord of gods; இந்திரன். (பிங்.)

அமர் amar -> அமரர்பதி² amarar-pati , n. Svarga, as the abode of gods; தேவலோகம்.

அமர் amar -> அமராபதி amarāpati , n. Name of Indra's capital; இந்திரன் நகர். (சீவக. 2335.)

அமர் amar -> அமரை amarai, n. 1. Amarāvatī, the capital of Indra's Heaven; அமராவதி.
Since Indra is a warrior/king, he is regarded as King of those who sacrificed their lives in the battle field.
Heaven was considered as the highest word for humans (mortals) in the Tamil country which is totally against the fraud Brahmins claim of immortals world.
செல் Cel -> செல்லுலகு cel-l-ulaku , n. . +. Heaven, as the goal of humanity; [மக்கள் செல்லுதற்குரிய உலகம்] மறுமை. செல்லுலகறிந் தோர் (மணி. 23, 134).

செல்Cel -> செல்வம் celvam , n. . 1. Enjoyment, pleasure, experience of happiness; நுகர்ச்சி. (தொல். பொ. 259, உரை.) 2. Indra's heaven; சுவர்க்கம். (அக. நி.)
Tamilians regarded Heaven as highest place.
உ u -> உவ uva-> உவண் uvaṇ , Upper-place, place above; மேலிடம். (சீவக. 2853.)

உ u -> உவ uva-> உவ்வி uvvi , , n. Head; தலை. (திவா.).

Tamilians regarded heaven as highest place as which is desireable or enjoyable.

உ u -> உவ uva-> உவ-த்தல் uva-
, 12 v. intr. [M. uva.] 1. To be glad, to rejoice, to be delighted; மகிழ்தல். (திருமுரு. 1.) 2. To be pleasing, agreeable; பிரி யமாதல். அவருக் குவந்த செய்கை. Colloq.--tr. To be pleased with, to approve of, like; விரும்புதல். உறுவ துலகுவப்பச் செய்து (நாலடி, 74).
Cf
மகிழ்¹-தல் makiḻ- , 4 v. [M. makiḻuka.] intr. 1. To joy, rejoice, exult; அகங்களித்தல். காணின் மகிழ்ந்துள்ளம் (குறள், 1057). 2. To forget oneself in joy; உணர்வழிய உவகையெய்து தல். காண மகிழ்தலும் . . . காமத்திற் குண்டு (குறள், 1281). 3. To bubble up in boiling; குமிழியிடு தல். சோறு மகிழ்ந்து வருகிறது. Tinn.--tr. 1. To wish, desire; விரும்புதல். மங்கல வணியிற் பிறி தணி மகிழாள் (சிலப். 4, 50). 2. To take in, drink; உண்ணுதல். தேறன் மகிழ்ந்து (புறநா. 129).

மகிழ்² makiḻ , n. < மகிழ்-. 1. Joy, exhilaration; இன்பம். மகிழ்சிறந்து (புறநா. 20, 32). 2. Intoxication from liquor; குடிவெறி. மகிழ்மிகச் சிறப்ப மயங்கினள் கொல்லோ (ஐங்குறு. 42). 3. Toddy; மது. பிழிமகி ழுண்பார் பிறர் (பு. வெ. 2, 11). மகிணன் makiṇaṉ , n. < மகிழ்-. 1. Husband; கணவன். நின்மகிணன் றனையும் (கந்தபு. திருமண. 29). 2. Chief of an agricultural tract; மருதநிலத் தலைவன். தலைவன் பெயர் ஊரன் மகிணன் (இறை. களவி. 1, பக். 18). 3. Lord; சுவாமி. மதிய மூர்ச டாமோலி மகிணர் (தக்கயாகப். 111). சுவை¹த்தல் suvai- , 11 v. [K. savi, M. cuvekka.] tr. 1. To taste; உருசிபார்த் தல். 2. To eat, chew, suck; உண்ணுதல். சுவைத் தொ றழூஉந்தன் மகத்துமுக நோக்கி (புறநா. 164). 3. (Erot.) To kiss; முத்தமிடுதல். புல்லுதல் சுவைத்திடல் (கந்தபு. இந்திரபுரி. 38). 4. To experience, enjoy; போகநுகர்தல். (சங். அக.)- intr. To be palatable, agreeable, pleasing; உருசியாதல். இக்கரும மென்றனுக்குச் சுவைப்பதிலை (திருக்காளத். பு. ஞானயோ. 1). சுவை² suvai , n. [T. K. tcavi, M. cuva.] 1. Taste, flavour; இரசம். அறுசுவை யுண்டி (நாலடி, 1). 2. Deliciousness, sweetness; உருசி. (பிங்.) 3. That which is pleasing or gratifying to the senses; இனிமையானது. (சூடா.) உ u -> உவ uva-> உவண் -> உவணை uvaṇai , n. < உவண். Svarga, the celestial region; தேவலோகம். ஆகநீத் துவணைமே லுறைந்தான் (சேதுபு. விதூம. 54). உ u -> உவ uva-> (சுவ suva) -> சுவவு² suvavu , n. Indra's heaven. (பிங்.)

சுவவு² suvavu-> சுவலோகம் suvalōkam, n. Indra's heaven, third of mēl-ēḻ-ulakam, q.v.; மேலேழுலகத்துள் மூன்றாவதான சுவர்க்கம். (சி. போ. பா. 2, 3, பக். 210.)

சுவர்க்ககணம் suvarkka-kaṇam , n. < சுவர்க் கம்¹ +. (Pros.) Metrical foot of three nēr. See இந்திரகணம். (இலக். வி. 800, உரை.) உ u -> உவ uva-> சுவவு² suvavu-> சுவர்² suvar , Indra's heaven சுவர்க்கம்¹, 1. (சங். அக.)

உ u -> உவ uva-> (சுவ suva) -> சுவனம் suvanam, Indra's heaven சுவர்க்கம் (Muslim usage)

சுவர்² suvar -> स्वर् svar ind. 1 Heaven, paradise;. -2 The heaven of Indra and the temporary abode of the virtuous after death. -3 The sky, ether. -4 The space above the sun or between the sun and the polar star.

சுவர்² suvar -> சுவர்க்கம்¹ suvarkkam, n. 1. Indra's heaven, the world of gods; தேவ லோகம். தென்னாட்டவருஞ் சுவர்க்கம் புகுதலால் (நாலடி, 243). 2. Happiness; இன்பம். நோற்றுச் சுவர்க்கம் புகுகின்ற வம்மனாய் (திவ். திருப்பா. 10).
சுவர்க்கம்¹ suvarkkam-> स्वर्गः svargḥ Heaven, Indra's paradise;
சுவர்க்கம்¹ suvarkkam-> சுவர்க்கன் suvarkkaṉ . Indra, as the Lord of the celestial world; [தேவலோகத் தலைவன்] இந்திரன். (பிங்.)

Later days, Viṣṇu acquired and owned the name svarga also in the vaisnava religion.

சுவர்க்கவாசல் suvarkka-vāsal, n. < சுவர்க் கம்¹ +. A gate in Viṣṇu temples believed to represent the entrance to heaven and opened annually for ten days from the 11th day of the bright half of Mārkaḻi to let the idol and devotees pass through; விஷ்ணுகோயில்களில் மார்கழிமாதத்துச் சுக்கில ஏகாதசிமுதல் பத்துநாள் வரை சுவாமி எழுந்தருளுதற்கு உரியதும், வைகுண்ட வாயில்போலக் கருதிப் பலரும் செல்வதற்கு உரியதும் மற்றக்காலங்களில் திறக்கப்படாததுமான தனிவாயில். உ-> உயர்நிலம் uyar-nilam,, n. 1. World of the gods, lit., the higher regions; தேவலோகம். உயர்நில மடைந்தான் கொணர்ந்தனன் (உபதேசகா. உருத்திராக்க. 90). 2. Mound, hillock, high land; மேடு. (பிங்.) 3. Upper storey
உ-> உம்பர் umpar ,; n. 1. Elevated spot, higher place; மேலிடம். மாடத்தும்பர் (ஞானா. 9, 6). 2. Height, elevation; உயர்ச்சி. (திவா.) 3. Sky, firmament; ஆகாயம். உம்பருச்சியிற் . . . கதிர்பரப்பு கடவுள் (திருவிளை. தண்ணீர். 22). 4. Celestial world, paradise; தேவலோகம். உம்பர்க் கிடந்துண் ண (நாலடி, 37). 5. [M. umbar.] Celestials, immortals, gods; தேவர். ஒலிகடல்சூ ழுலகாளு மும்பர்தாமே (திவ். பெரியதி.

உ-> உம்பர் umpar ->உம்பர்கோன் umpar-kōṉ [M. umbarkōn.] Indra, the lord of the celestials; இந்திரன். உம்பர்கோனு முலகேழும் வந்தீண்டி வணங்கும் (திவ். பெரியதி. 5, 4, 5).

உம்பர் umpar ->உம்பரார் umparār, n. Celestials; தேவர். உம்பரார்க்கு முரைப்பருந் தகைய ரானார் (சீவக. 1678).

உம்பர் umpar ->உம்பரான்² umparāṉ , n. suff. Person in high state, one in exalted position; உயர்நிலையி லிருப்பவன். உவப்பி னும்பரான் (கந்தபு. மாயைப். 33).

உம்பர் umpar ->உம்பருலகு umpar-ulaku n. World of the gods; தேவலோகம். கற்போர்... உம்பருலகாள்வர் (திருவாலவா. பயன்மு. 5).
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சே cē -> சேண் cēṇ , n. 1. Distance, remoteness; சேய்மை. சேண்விளங்கு சிறப்பின் ஞாயிறு (புறநா. 174, 2). 2. Height, loftiness; உயரம். (திவா.) சேண வந்தர நோக்கலும் (கம்பரா. இராவணன்வதை. 38). 3. Mountain top, summit; மலைமுகடு. (பிங்.) 4. Sky; ஆகாயம். சேணெல்லாம் புல்லொளி செலுத்தி (கம்பரா. சூர்ப்பணகை. 20). 5. Heaven; சுவர்க்கம். சேண் மகபதிக்கு நல்கி (கந்தபு. திருநகர. 105). 6. Width, spaciousness; அகலம். (பிங்.) (திருக்கோ. 213, உரை.) 7. Length; நீளம். (திவா.) சேணுற நீண்டு மீண்டு (கம்பரா. சூர்ப்பணகை. 46). 8. Long time; நெடுங்காலம். சுற்றமொடு முழுது சேண் விளங்கி (புறநா. 2, 19).

சே cē -> சேண cēṇa , adv. Up; உயர. சேண வெரிநிற் சிறந்தானோ டேறினாள் (பரிபா. 12, 48).

சேண் cēṇ -> சேணாடு cēṇāṭu , n. Heaven; சுவர்க்கம். (W.)

சேண் cēṇ ->சேணியன்¹ cēṇiyaṉ , n. < சேண். Indra; இந்திரன். சேணியனு மன்றே தெரிந்து (தனிப்பா. i, 60, 120). மேல் mēl , [T. K. mēlu, M. mēl.] n. 1. That which is above or over; upper side; surface; மேலிடம். ஒலை . . . தொட்டு மேற்பொறியை நீக்கி (சீவக. 2143). 2. Extra; அதிகப்படி. 3. Sky; வானம். (சூடா.) மேலுயர் கைலையை (கம்பரா. யுத்த. மந்திரப். 80). 4. West; மேற்கு. (பிங்.) 5. Head; தலை. மேவா ருயிருணங்க மேன்முடித்த பிள்ளையன் (பு. வெ. 2, 8). 6. Leadership; superiority; தலைமை. மேலதிகாரி. 7. Excellence; மேன்மை. (பிங்.) 8. The great; உயர்ந் தோர். இன்னாமை நோக்கிப் பசைதல் பரியாதா மேல் (நாலடி, 60) மேலவர்க்கிறைவன் mēlavarkkiṟaivaṉ , n. < மேலவர் +. See மேலவரிறைவன், 1. (திவா.) மேலவரிறைவன் mēlavar-iṟaivaṉ , n. < id. +. (யாழ். அக.) 1. Skanda; முருகக்கடவுள். 2. Indra; இந்திரன். மேலவன் mēl-avaṉ , n. < id. +. [K. mēl- mavanu.] 1. Great or superior person; பெரி யோன். மேலவன் விளம்பலும் விளம்பன் மேயினான் (கம்பரா. விபீடண. 78). 2. Wise man; அறிஞன். (திவா.) 3. Celestial being; தேவன். (பிங்.) 4. One who is seated high, as on a horse; மேலிடத்துள்ளவன். குதிரையின் றலைகள் கொய்து மேலவன் சிரத்தைச் சிந்தி (கம்பரா. அதிகாய. 201). மேலா¹ mēlā , n. perh. மேல். Superior or higher authorities; மேற்பட்ட அதிகாரஸ்தானம். மேலாவிலிருந்து உத்தரவு வந்தது. Loc. மேலா²-த்தல் mēl-ā- , 12 v. tr. < id. + ஆ&sup7;-. To turn upward; மேற்புறமாக்குதல். (யாழ். அக.) மேலா³-தல் mēl-ā- , v. intr. < id. + ஆ&sup6;-. To excel; சிறத்தல். Colloq. மேலாயினார் mēl-āyiṉār , n. < மேல் + ஆ&sup6;-. [K. mēlādavaru.] Elders; உயர்ந்தோர். இது மேலாயினாரிடங்களிற் பூப்புணர்த்துமாறு (இறை. 43, பக். 175). மேலார் mēlār , n. < id. 1. See மேலாயினார். 2. Warriors; வீரர். மேலாரிறையமருள் (பு. வெ. 9, 8). மேலால் mēlāl , < மேல். adj. Upper, higher; உயர்தரமான.--adv. 1. Hereafter; இனி மேல். மேலால் இப்படிச் செய்யாதே. 2. Superficially; மேலெழுந்தவாரியாக. மேலுலகம் mēl-ulakam , n. < id. +. 1. The celestial world; சுவர்க்கம். மேலுலக மில் லெனினு மீதலே நன்று (குறள், 222). 2. See மேலேழுலகம். (யாழ். அக.) மேலோர் mēlōr , n. < id. 1. Those who are seated high, as on horses; மேலிடத்தோர். காழோர் கையற மேலோ ரின்றி (மணி. 4, 35). 2. The great, those of superior rank or caste; உயர்ந்தோர். மேலோர் மூவர்க்கும் புணர்த்த கரணம் (தொல். பொ. 144). 3. Poets; men of learning; புலவர். (பிங்.) 4. Ancestors, ancients; முன்னோர். 5. Celestials; வானோர். (சூடா.) மேனாடு mēṉāṭu , n. < மேல் + நாடு. 1. Svarga, as the upper world; சுவர்க்கம். 2. Highland; பீடபூமி. 3. Mysore, as being to the west of the Tamil country; [தமிழ்நாட்டுக்கு மேற் பாலுள்ளது] மைசூர்ப்பிரதேசம். (குருபரம்.) 4. See மேற்சீமை, 1. 5. A plant found in damp places. See பொன்னாங்காணி. (தைலவ. தைல.) வான்¹ vāṉ , n. 1. [T. vāna, K. bāna, M. vānu.] Sky, the visible heavens; ஆகாயம். வானுயர் தோற்றம் (குறள், 272). 2. Primordial matter; மூலப்பிரகிருதி. வானின் றிழிந்து வரம்பிகந்த மாபூதத்தின் (கம்பரா. அயோத். மந்திர. 1). 3. Cloud; மேகம். ஏறொடு வான் ஞெமிர்ந்து (மதுரைக். 243). 4. Rain; மழை. வான்மடி பொழுதில் (பெரும் பாண். 107). 5. Celestial world; தேவருலகு. வான்பொரு நெடுவரை (சிறுபாண். 128). 6. Ambrosia; அமிர்தம். வான்சொட்டச் சொட்ட நின் றட்டும் வளர்மதி (தேவா. 586, 1). 7. Heaven; மோட்சலோகம். வானேற வழிதந்த (திவ். திருவாய். 10, 6, 5). 8. Goodness; நன்மை. வரியணி சுடர் வான் பொய்கை (பட்டினப். 38). 9. Greatness; largeness; பெருமை. (பிங்.) இருடூங்கு வான்முழை (காசிக. காசியின்சிறப். 13). வான்பதம் vāṉ-patam , n. < id. + பதம்². Final emancipation; முத்தி. எனக்கே வான்பத மளிக்க (அருட்பா, vi, அருட்பெருஞ். அ. 1181). வான்மகள் vāṉ-makaḷ , n. < வான்¹ +. Indrāṇi; இந்திராணி. மண்மகளு நாமகளும் வான் மகளும் (திருவாரூ. 114). வானகம் vāṉ-akam , n. < வான்¹ + அகம்¹. 1. Sky; ஆகாசம். வானகத்தில் வளர்முகிலை (தேவா. 1078, 2). 2. Heaven; விண்ணுலகு. இடமுடை வானகங் கையுறினும் வேண்டார் (நாலடி, 300). 3. Red-wood. See மஞ்சாடி, 1. (மலை.) வானநாடன் vāṉa-nāṭaṉ, n. < வானம்¹ +. 1. Lord of the celestial world; மேலுலகத்திற்குத் தலைவன். வானநாடனே வழித்துணை மருந்தே (தேவா. 486, 9). 2. Inhabitant of heaven; தேவ லோக வாசி. வானநாடி¹ vāṉanāṭi , n. Fem. of வான நாடன். She who resides in svarga; சுவர்க்க லோகத்தவள். மையறுசிறப்பின் வானநாடி (சிலப். 11, 215). வானநாடி² vāṉanāṭi , n. வானநாடு. வானநாடு vāṉa-nāṭu , n. < வானம்¹ +. 1. Heaven; மோட்சலோகம். 2. Celestial world; தேவலோகம். வானநாடுடைய மன்னன் (திருவிளை. இந்திரன்முடி. 38). 3. See வானநாடி². (தைலவ.) வானம்¹ vāṉam , n. < வான்¹. 1. Firmament; ஆகாயம். வானத் தரவின் வாய்க்கோட் பட்டு (கலித். 105). 2. Celestial world; தேவருலகு. வான மூன்றிய மதலைபோல (பெரும்பாண். 346). 3. Fire; அக்கினி. (அரு. நி.) 4. Cloud; மேகம். ஒல் லாது வானம் பெயல் (குறள், 559). 5. Rain; மழை. வானம் வாய்க்க மண்வளம் பெருகுக (மணி. 19, 149). வானர் vāṉar , n. < வான்¹. Celestials; தேவர். மான்முதல் வானர்க்கு (திருக்கோ. 155). வானவர்கோன் vāṉavar-kōṉ , n. < வான வர் + கோன்¹. Indra, as king of the gods; இந்திரன். வானவர்கோன் . . . வணங்குந் தொழிலானை (திவ். இயற். 2, 17). வானவர்நாடி vāṉavar-nāṭi , n. < id. + நாடு. See வானரமகள்². (திருமந். 1058.) வானவன் vāṉavaṉ , n. < வான்¹. 1. Celestial being; தேவன். நான்முகன் முதலா வான வர் தொழுதெழ (திருவாச. 4, 1). வானாடு vāṉāṭu , n. < வான்¹ + நாடு. 1. Svarga; சுவர்க்கம். வானாடும் மண்ணாடும் (திவ். பெரியதி. 4, 1, 3). 2. Heaven; மோட்சம். கல்லும் கனைகடலும் வைகுந்த வானாடும் (திவ். இயற். பெரிய திருவந். 68). வானுலகம் vāṉ-ulakam , n. < வான்¹ +. See வானுலகு. வானுலகு vāṉ-ulaku , n. < id. +. 1. Celestial world, Svarga; சுவர்க்கம். (பிங்.) 2. Heaven; மோட்சம். பாடாதார் வானுலகு நண்ணாரே (சீவக. 1468). வானோர் vāṉōr , n. < id. Celestials; தேவர். வானோர் தங்கள் வடிவின் (சிலப். பதிகம், 52). வானோர்க்கிறை vāṉōrkkiṟai , n. < வானோர் + இறை¹. See வானோர்கோமான். (உரி. நி.) வானோர்கிழவன் vāṉōr-kiḻavaṉ, n. < id. +. See வானோர்கோமான். வானோர் கிழவ னின் வரம்பின்று பொலிய (பெருங். நரவாண. 4, 55). வானோர்கோமான் vāṉōr-kōmāṉ , n. < id. +. Indra; இந்திரன். (சூடா.) வானோர்மாற்றலர் vāṉōr-māṟṟalar , n. < id. +. (யாழ். அக.) 1. Asuras; அசுரர். 2. Rākṣasas; இராக்கதர். வானோர்முதல்வன் vāṉōr-mutalvaṉ , n. < id. +. 1. Brahmā, as first among the celestials; பிரமன். (சூடா.) 2. See வானோர்கோமான். பரம்¹ param , n. 1. That which is pre-eminent, excellent; மேலானது.. 2. A manifestation of Viṣṇu, one of five tirumāl-nilai, q.v.; திருமால்நிலை ஐந்தனுள் ஒன்று. 3. God; கடவுள். காணலாம் பரமே (திருவாச. 5, 44). 4. Heaven; மேலுலகம். இகபரமாகி யிருந்தவனே (திருவாச. 6, 17). 5. That which is celestial, divine or heavenly; திவ்வியம். 6. Final bliss; மோட்சம். (பிங்.) 7. Liberation from births; பிறவி நீக்கம். (W.) 8. The front; முன். (பிங்.) 9. Upper portion; மேலிடம். அகிற்புகை . . . பரங்கொடு போகி (இரகு. நகர. 4). பரம்¹ param-> பரு paru : Heaven; சுவர்க்கம்.

புரு² puru , n. 1. Abundance; மிகுதி. (சங். அக.) 2. Greatness; பருமை. புரு சுண்டந் தாங்குந் தன்மையால் (விநாயகபு. 46, 44). 3. Heaven; மோட்சம். (W.)

பெருநிலம் peru-nilam, n. Earth; பூமி. Highest Heaven; பரமபதம். அருளொடு பெருநில மளிக்கும் (திவ். பெரியதி. 1, 1, 9).

மீ² mī , n. [T. mī, K. mē.] 1. Top, surface, மேலிடம். நாண்மலர் வான்மீ யகத்தே வர (திருநூற். 84). 2. Height, elevation, eminence, loftiness; உயரம். (திவா.) 3. Sky, heavens; ஆகாயம். (பிங்.) மீப்பாவிய விமையோர் குலம் (கம்பரா. நிகும்பலை. 149). 4. Greatness, dignity; மேன்மை. வெற்றிக் கருளக் கொடியான்றன் மீமீதாடா வுலகத்து (திவ். நாய்ச். 13, 7).

மீ² mī -> மீமிசையண்டம் mīmicai-y-aṇṭam, n. < id. +. The Highest Heaven; பரமபதம். மீமிசை யண்ட மாண்டிருப்பாற்கு (திவ். பெரியதி. 2, 1, 4). மீ² mī -> மீலம் mīlam, n. Heaven; வானம். (சங். அக.)

மேல்வீடு mēl-vīṭu, n. < id. +. 1. Storeyed house; மெத்தைவீடு. (W.) 2. Upper storey; மாடி. Loc. 3. Heaven; மோட்சம். (ஈடு.) மீ² mī -> வி³ vi . n. 1. Heaven; விசும்பு.

வி³ vi ->விண்¹ viṇ , n [T. M. viṇṇu, K. Tu. binnu.] 1. Sky; ஆகாசம். விண் பொரு புகழ் விறல்வஞ்சி (புறநா. 11). 2. Heaven; மேலுலகம். விண்மீதிருப்பாய் (திவ். திருவாய். 6, 9, 5). 3. Cloud; மேகம். (திவா.)

விண் -> விண்டு¹ viṇṭu , n. Viṣṇu; திருமால். (பிங்.)

விண் -> விண்டு² viṇṭu , n. 1. Sky; ஆகாசம். (சூடா.) விண்டுலாய் நிமிர்கிரவுஞ்சகிரி. (கந்தபு. தாரக. 2). 2. Svarga; மேலுலகம். விண் டுறை தேவரும் விலகிப்போயினார் (கம்பரா. கிளைகண்டு. 138). 3. Cloud; மேகம். (பிங்.) 4. Wind, air; காற்று. (பிங்.) 5. Mountain; மலை. தென்புல மருங்கின் விண்டு நிறைய வாணன் வைத்த விழுநிதி (மதுரைக். 202). 6. Bamboo; மூங்கில். (பிங்.)

விண் -> விண்ணு viṇṇu , n. Viṣṇu; திரு மால். விரிந்தெங்குஞ் சென்றமையால் விண்ணுவு மாய் (யாப். வி. 84).

விண்ணு viṇṇu , n. -> Viṣṇu in Skt

விண் -> விண்ணுலகம் viṇ-ṇ-ulakam , n.. 1. Svarga; சுவர்க்கம். (பு.வெ. 10, காஞ்சிப். 4, உரை.) 2. Heaven; மேலுலகம். விண்ணுலகந் தருந்தேவனை (திவ். திருவாய். 9, 3, 4).

விண் -> விண்ணுலகு viṇ-ṇ-ulaku , n. < id. +. See விண்ணுலகம். (பிங்.) விண்ணுலகே யொக்கும் விழைவிற்றால் (நாலடி, 233). Indra worship Vs Krishna worship As Lord Indra is considered as sky god, he was considered as giving rain to the earth. மேகமூர்ந்தோன் mēkam-ūrntōṉ , n. < id. +. Indra; இந்திரன். (நாமதீப. 60.) Due to Krishna worship after Govardhana hill incident, the worship of Indra was extinct in North India. In the country of India, there is a little town called Brindavan. Krishna woke up with a start. It was not yet morning, but the sounds coming from the streets were loud and noisy enough to wake one up. Curious, he got up and peeked outside his window. A crowd had gathered before his house. Several men and women were sweeping the streets clean. The roads were being decorated with garlands and lamps. Krishna was surprised at the sight, as he had seen since his birth that in the rainy season, the villagers slept till late in the morning. He left his home to take a bath in the river. While coming back, he saw his father Nanda overseeing the men in the streets. "Father, what is happening on the streets?" Krishna asked his father. "The Gopalas are preparing to celebrate a festival to worship Lord Indra," said Nanda. "This year, there has been a rainfall more generous and everybody is happy with the fertile crops. Since Indra is the God of rains, we should thank Him for being so gracious in his blessings!" "How do you say that Lord Indra is the one who's causing rains, Father?" Krishna frowned in disagreement. Nanda looked at his son in alarm. "Of course it's Indra who's causing the rains, son. He is surely the reason for our good fortune. He's the God of the Clouds and he rules them... so he is the one who has blessed us with good rain this year," he replied hesitantly to his son. "No, father!" refused Krishna firmly, "you're all mistaken. Govardhana Mountain is our real friend. More than the clouds above, the mountain in our village has helped us." "How can you say that?" asked Nanda, looking at his son in disbilief. "The fertile mountain sends the signals in the air and creates clouds that drift over the Brindavan and give us rains." replied Krishna. "So whom should we praise and worship? Not Indra, but Govardhana!" "Yes, father," continued the boy. "Who gives us medicine in the form of magical herbs and plants? Who sends us clean water and air from the top of its peak? "And who gives us good grass for our cows, so that they give us milk that's sweeter than honey? It is Govardhana!" The initial surprise and doubts of the Gopalas were beginning to disappear. They now began to see Krishna's point. "So why should we not worship the mountain?" Krishna continued. "It is wiser to give thanks to something which is right before us, rather than some deva who lives comfortably in the heavens." Hearing Krishna's words, the Gopalas were totally convinced. They all agreed to worship Govardhan that year, instead of Lord Indra. Later due to heavy rainfall, brindavan was flooded with water. Everybody was alarmed and came out of their homes. Krishna heard the frightened voices of the villagers. He was curious and came out of his house. But as soon as he stepped out, there was a great roar and the black clouds poured rains over Nanda's house. It seemed as if this was what the monstrous clouds had been waiting for. People started to run for their lives. They ran in all directions, to save their family and belongings. But even escape seemed difficult for the Brindavan people. The hard and blinding rain lashed over their faces, as if giving slaps for some unknown offence. Krishna walked to the centre of the town. Using his most commanding voice, he called out: "O people of Brindavan. Look at me. Do not run. Do not panic!" He directed them to climb over the Goverdhana Mountain and there they took shelter. Due to that incident, Krishna worship replaced Indra worship later. Indra and Jayanta The name of Indra’s son is named Jayanta. It is pertinent to note that there was a Natya or Dance work in Tamil which is in the name of Jayanta and further that Indra’s audience hall also was called as Jayantam. It is also relevant to note that in South Indian Dance Art, one gesticulation with hand among 15 joint hands is called as Jayantam. These are attested in the Tamil Lexicon only and not in Sanskrit Lexicon. சயந்தம் cayantam , n. 1. Indra's audience hall; இந்திரனது ஓலக்கமண்டபம். (பிங்.) 2. A Nāṭya work in Tamil, not now extant; இறந்துபட்ட ஒரு நாடகத் தமிழ்நூல். (சிலப். உரைப்பாயிரம்.) 3. (Nāṭya.) A kind of gesticulation with hand, one of 15 iṇai-k-kai, q.v.; இணைக்கைவகையுளொன்று (சிலப். 3, 18, உரை.) In the Tamil epic Silappadhikaaram, there is a referenceto the origin of Talaikkol institution. It would appear that once Indra gave a royal audience to the distinguished guests, sages, and seers in his ideally deorated durbar hall. Jayanta, son of Indra, was also present besides a number of actresses and dancing women like Rambha, Urvasi and others. When the Sabha was in session and in the presence of distinguishedpersons and sages, Jayanta and Urvasi are said to have misbehaved in a manner that enraged the sage Agastya.The sage felt that such misbehaviour under those circumstances deserved condign punishment. Hence he pronounced a curse to the effect that Jayanta should be born as a bamboo stick in the Vindhya mountains (i.e.ordered/commanded/banished jayanata to live in the Vindhya mountains which is under his jurisdiction), and that Urvasi should be born on the earth as a courtesan (i.e.should live as a courtesan). But both of them regretted their fault and begged his pardon. The sage said that the institution of dancing would become popularly identified with Jayanta and that from Urvasi would come into being a line of dancing girls and actresses in the world. Therefore, it had become a custom even at the time of the composition of the Silappadikaram for dancing girls to trace their descent from the heavenly Urvasi. It is also obvious that there was a recognized work on the art of dancing known as the Jayanta. 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Þõø¢ø£Âñ¢, ºù¢ Üó颫èø¢Á 裬îò¤ô¢ ''ªîò¢õ ñ£ô¢ õ¬óî¢ î¤¼ºù¤ ò¼÷, âò¢î¤ò ê£ðî¢ î¤ï¢î¤ó ê¤Áõªù£´, î¬ôè¢ «è£ø¢ ø£ùî¢¶ê¢ ê£ð ï¦é¢è¤ò, ñ¬ôð¢ð¼ë¢ ê¤øð¢ð¤ù¢ õ£ùõó¢ ñè÷¤ó¢'' âù¢Á¬óî¢î¶ ºîô¤òõø¢ø£Âñ¢ Üø¤òð¢ð´ñ¢ õóô£ø£õ¶ : å¼è£ô𢠪ð£î¤ò¤ù¢ ºù¤õù£è¤ò Üèî¢î¤òù¢ Þï¢î¤óù¶ ܬõ袰 õó, Üð¢ªð£¿¶ Þï¢î¤óù¢ ð£ì«ô£´ à¼ð¢ðê¤ò¤ù¢ Ýìô¢ ï¤èö¢èªõùð¢ ðí¤î¢îùù¢ ; Ýí¢´ Þï¢î¤óù¢ ñèù£è¤ò ê¤î¢î¤ó«êùù¢ èó õó ªôö¤ù¤»ìù¢ ¹°ï¢¶ð£ì, à¼ð¢ðꤻñ¢ ÜõÂñ¢ å¼õ¬óªò£¼õó¢ èí¢´ 裺ø¢ø¬ñò¤ù¢ Üõ÷¶ Ýìô¢ ªïè¤ö¢ï¢î¶ ; Üîù£ô¢ ã¬ùè¢ è¼õ¤èª÷ô¢ô£ñ¢ ªïè¤ö¢ï¢îù ; ï£óîù¢ Þî¬ù Üø¤õ¤î¢îô¢ è¼î¤î¢ îù¶ ò£ö¤ø¢ ð¬è ïóñ¢¹ ðìð¢ ð£®ùù¢ ; Þõø¢¬øªòô¢ô£ ºíó¢ï¢î °Áºù¤õù¢ ï£óîù¶ õ¦¬í ñé¢èôñ¤öð¢ð ñí¢í¤«ô ñ¬íò£ò¢è¢ è¤ì袰ñ£Áñ¢, à¼ð¢ðê¤ ¹õ¤ò¤«ô ð¤ø袰ñ£Áñ¢, êòï¢îù¢ Ìñ¤ò¤ô¢ Íé¢è¤ô£ò¢î¢ «î£ù¢Áñ£Áñ¢ êð¤î¢¶, Üõó¢è÷¢ «õí¢´îô£ø¢ ð¤ù¢ ê£ðõ¤¬ì îï¢îùù¢ ; âù¢ð¶. Arangetram, and the Talaikkol Celebration. The word ‘arangetram’ is associated with the debut performance of a classical dancer. It originates from the word ‘arangam’ meaning ‘ a stage’ and ‘etram’ meaning ‘to climb’. It is a ritual or a custom where the dancer ascends the professional stage for the first time to present a full-fledged performance. The earliest reference to this ritual is found in the Sangam literature (early Tamil literature) belonging to the Sangam period ( 500 BC – 500 AD). The Tamil epic Shilappadikaram (2nd century A.D) written by Ilango Adigal of the Chera Kingdom, gives details of the arangetram in the chapter called as ‘Arangettru kadai’. One of the protagonists in the epic, Madhavi, is a courtesan – ‘natakaganikai’ and this chapter narrates in great details the debut performance of the young professional dancer. After undergoing rigorous training for a period of nearly seven years under the careful tutelage of the dance master (adal ashiriyan), music teacher, composer, poet, yazh player, kuzhal player (flautist) and the percussionist, Madhavi is ready to be presented before the august presence to exhibit her talents at the tender, youthful age of twelve. Madhavi’s arangetram takes place at Puhar, the capital of the Chola Kingdom, in the presence of the Chola King, the learned assembly and the citizens. On an auspicious day, the ‘talaikkol’ (it was invariably the shaft of the enemy’s umbrella seized in war and represented Jayanta, Indra’s son had to be bathed by the dancing girl with the holy waters brought in a golden jar after which it had to be garlanded and handed over with blessings to the State elephant. The State elephants were already appropriately adorned for the occasion, with ornaments. The musician – poet who sat on the top of the chariot would receive the talaikkol from the King and his group of five advisors would circumambulate the chariot and the elephant before handing over the holy talaikkol. All this was the accompaniment of the drum and other musical instruments proclaiming victory. The talaikkol was then taken in a procession round the town along with the entire paraphernalia after which it was placed in the theatre at its appointed place. After all musicians took their allotted seats, the dancer – Madhavi, stepped on the stage placing her right foot forward, taking her position beside the pillar on a right according to the ancient custom. At the end of her debut performance because of her excellence, she is presented with the talaikkol and honoured by the Chola King with the title ‘talaikkoli’. The dancer is now qualified to be called as a ‘professional dancer’ or ‘Nadagakanikai’. தலைக்கோல் talai-k-kōl , n. < id. +. Title given to a dancing-girl who is an adept in her profession; ஆடற்கணிகையர்பெறும் பட்டம். மலைப் பருஞ் சிறப்பிற் றலைக்கோ லரிவையும் (சிலப். 14, 154). தலைக்கோலாசான் talai-k-kōl-ācāṉ , n. < தலைக்கோல் +. One who gives training in dancing, dancing-master; நட்டுவன். தலைக்கோ லாசான் பின்னுள னாக (சிலப். 30, 20). தலைக்கோலி talai-k-kōli , n. < id. +. Dancing woman who is an adept in her profession; ஆடிமுதிர்ந்த கணிகை. கூத்தன் நம்பிராட்டியான மனஞ்செய்த பெருமாள் தலைக்கோலி (S. I. I. v, 145). தலைக்கோற்றானம் talai-k-kōṟṟāṉam , n. < தலைக்கோல் +. Stage for dancing; நாடகவரங்கு. தலைக்கோற் றானத்துச் சாபநீங்கிய . . . மாதவி (சிலப். 3, 3, அரும்.). மன்மகளிர் maṉ-makaḷir , n. < மன்² +. Dancing girls distinguished by a royal grant of talai-k-kōl; அரசனால் தலைக்கோல் பெற்ற ஆடல் மகளிர். மன்மகளிர் சென்னியராடல் (பரிபா. 7, 80). The name Jayanta is celebrated in the ceremony and worship of Talaikkol, which is an important feature of all dancing recognized in early times. In the middle of the stage specially constructed for dancing was a bamboo stick adorned with pearls and precious stones and encased in unalloyed gold, symbolical of Jayanta, perhaps the first dancer on the earth. It was kept in the central place to be clearly seen by all members of the audience sitting in front of the stage. This pole was generally the bamboo stick, which formed the handle of the white umbrella of an enemy king. Usually when the enemy king was defeated, it was the practice of the victor to appropriate some emblems of his sovereignty to show that he was the victor, and the enemy, the vanquished. One of such spoils of war was the white umbrella of the monarch. When once it became the property of the conquering king, he removed the stick that supported it and located it in a separate room in his palace as an object of Worship On the day appointed for dance this sacred pole was duly washed with the holy waters brought in a golden pitcher. It was then adorned with garlands of pearls and flowers of different colours. It was after- wards taken in procession through the principal streets of the city on the back of the State elephant. The party leading this procession finally reached the dancing stage and had the stick once again located in the centre of the stage. It was a custom that the actress of the day must first worship this stick, for it represented, as already said, the first dancer on the earth. The stick was nor merely a decorative ornament. It was used during action. The actress took the holy stick and placed it on her head perhaps to serve as an equipoise when regular dancing began. Indra loka and Amrita (Ambrosia) As far as Amrita is concerned, it is necessary to analyse the story of Samudra Manthana by fraud Brahmins. The story of Samudra Manthana Indra, the King of Devatas, while riding on an elephant Airavata, came across a sage named Durvasa who offered him a special garland. Indra accepted the garland, placing it on the trunk of the elephant. The elephant, irritated by the smell of the garland, threw it to the ground. This enraged the sage as the garland was a dwelling of Sri (fortune) and was to be treated as prasada. Durvasa Muni cursed Indra and all devas to be bereft of all strength, energy, and fortune. In battles that followed this incident, Devas were defeated and Asuras (demons) led by king Bali gained control of the universe. Devas sought help from Lord Vishnu who advised them to treat asuras in a diplomatic manner. Devas formed an alliance with asuras to jointly churn the ocean for the nectar of immortality and to share it among them. However, Lord Vishnu told Devas that he would arrange that they alone obtain the nectar. Churning the Milky Ocean The churning of the Ocean of Milk was an elaborate process. Mount Mandaranchal was used as the dasher (churning tool), and Vasuki, the king of serpents, became the churning rope. The gods held the tail of the snake, while the demons (Asuras) held its head, and they pulled on it alternately causing the mountain to rotate, which in turn churned the ocean. However, once the mountain was placed on the ocean, it began to sink. Vishnu in his second incarnation, in the form of a turtle Kurma, came to their rescue and supported the mountain on his back. Note that the Mahabharata version of the story differs in many respects from the one in the various Puranas such as Bhagawat, Brahma-vaivarta, and Agni. For example, in Mahabharata, it was not Vishnu who took the Kurma avatara, but the Akupara, the king of tortoises, who did it on request from Devas and Asuras. Ratnas 1910s lithograph showing samudra manthan with the 14 jewels All kinds of herbs were cast into the ocean and fourteen Ratnas (gems or treasures) were produced from the ocean and were divided between asuras and gods. These were • Lakshmi, the Goddess of Fortune and Wealth -Vishnu's consort • Kaustubha, the most valuable jewel in the world • Parijat, the divine flowering tree with blossoms that never fade or wilt • Varuni, goddess and creator of alcohol • Dhanvantari, the doctor • Chandra, the moon • Kamadhenu, the wish-granting divine cow • Kalpavriksha, the wish-granting tree • Airavata, the elephant of Indra • Apsaras, various divine nymphs like Rambha, Menaka, Punjikasthala, etc. • Uchhaishravas, the divine 7-headed horse • Sharanga, the bow of Vishnu • Shankha Vishnu's conch • Amrita the nectar of immortality. It seems that only after Samudra Manthana; Lord Vishnu obtained Lakshmi, Kauthubha and Shankha from Milky Ocean. And Indra obtained Parijata, Airavata (in the said story itself, fraud Brahmins claimed that Airavata, irritated by the smell of the garland given by Durvasa, threw it to the ground and therefore, how it possible for another emergence of airavata), Apsaras (before that Apsaras are not there. very funny) and finaly Amrita. If so, before that Samudra Manthana, they (Vishnu and his brother Indra) have not possessed them. The nectar of immortality Finally fraud Brahmins claim that Dhanvantari, the heavenly physician, emerged with a pot containing amrita, the heavenly nectar of immortality. Fierce fighting ensued between devas and asuras for the nectar. However, the Asuras eventually got hold of the nectar and started celebrating. Frightened, devas (demigods) appealed to Vishnu, who then took the form of Mohini. As a beautiful and enchanting damsel, Mohini distracted the asuras, took the amrita, and distributed it among the Devas, who drank it. One asura, Rahu, disguised himself as a deva and drank some nectar. Due to their luminous nature, the sun god Surya and the moon god Chandra (who was born only at the time of same Samudra Manthana, according to fraud Brahmins) noticed the switching of sides. They informed Mohini. But before the nectar could pass his throat, Mohini cut off his head with her divine discus, the Sudarshana Chakra. The head, due to its contact with the amrita, remained immortal. From the stories of fraud Brahmins, it seems that before Samudra Manthana, Amrita was not available for Indra and other Devas for their immortality. They died like other human beings on earth. These fraud Brahmins are claiming that they are the direct and sole representatives of God and therefore they themselves claim as Bhusuras (living gods on earth). According to them, they are conversating with God in Sanskrit only. If so, they can request Indra and other gods to give some drops of Amrita for the immortaliy of Brahmins. Till date they are not doing so. Ambrosia In Greek mythology, ambrosia was a honey-flavored food eaten by the gods that allowed them to remain immortal. With the ambrosia, they often drank a honey-flavored drink called nectar. According to legend, each day doves brought ambrosia to Zeus, the king of the gods, to distribute among the other deities. Therefore Greeks borrows the immortal concept based upon Ambrosia from Brahmins’ Amrita. However the stories of Greek and Brahmins about the Gods are totally different. In ancient Greek mythology, ambrosia (Greek: ἀμβροσία) is sometimes the food, sometimes the drink, of the gods, often depicted as conferring ageless immortality upon whoever consumes it. It was brought to the gods inOlympus by doves (unlike Brahmins’ Samudra Manthana Story), so may have been thought of in the Homeric tradition as a kind of divine exhalation of the Earth. Ambrosia is very closely related to the gods' other form of sustenance, nectar. The two terms may not have originally been distinguished; [3] though in Homer's poems nectar is usually the drink and ambrosia the food of the gods; Amrita and Gods ‘s immortality 1. Krishna rules the Yadavas at Dwaraka with his wife Rukmini. In the end, the Yadavas kill themselves in infighting, and Krishna is killed by accident by a hunter. His death marked the end of Dvapara yuga. 2. Devas asked Kama, the god of love, to kindle amorous feelings in Shiva. Kama knew that this would invite the wrath of Shiva but for the sake of the universe he fired the love-arrow at Shiva. Shiva, angered by this, opened his third eye and destroyed Kama instantly – he was turned into ashes 3. Grief stricken by the loss of Sita, Rama asked the gods to end his sorrow. The gods told Rama that he must either enter heaven or stay on earth. Rama chose to follow Sita to eternity, so he walked into the river Sarayu and drowned. Upon Rama's death, the god Brahma welcomed the hero into heaven. 4. Where Yama and Yami lived, it was always day and the season was always spring. The sun never set and the moon and stars lay hidden behind its bright, golden light. Time stood still and there was neither yesterday nor tomorrow. The flowers never wilted or died. Beehives overflowed with honey and it was never dry or cold. The birds never became tired of flying, and the trees were never empty of plump, ripe fruits. In this sea of the eternal, happy moment, Yama and Yami swam peacefully like twin swans. One time, when Yami returned from a solitary walk, she found Yama lying under a tree as if he was asleep. She whispered his name, but he did not answer. She cried out his name in a loud voice, but still there was no answer. Then she shook him gently, but he did not move. She could see no sign that he was breathing and his body felt cold and still. Yami knew suddenly that she was alone in the world. Her brother Yama was dead. Yami’s sorrow, deeper than the ocean, began to flow out of her heart and through her eyes. It emerged as tears. The river of her tears swelled and began to flood the world. Her sobbing shook the earth and sky, and her grieving heart sent forth an intense fire that started to heat everything up. The gods and goddesses of the elements became worried about the welfare of the earth and all its creatures. They were afraid that Yami’s mourning would bring about the destruction of the world. The gods took on visible forms and went to Yami as she sat immersed in her agony. They hugged her, and spoke words of comfort to her about the inevitability of death and the need to light the lamp of hope again. But Yami was too sad to listen to consolation. She kept repeating one sentence over and over; "Yama died today! Yama died today!" Therefore the story of fraud Brahmins about Amrita is false. We have to analyse the origin of the word Amrita from Tamil etymology only. According to Tamilians, amrita is merely a prepared/cooked/boiled food for humen and nothing else. உம் (to fit, prepare, apt) um-> அம் am -> அமை¹-தல் amai- , 4 v.intr. 1. To become still, quiet, to subside; அடங்குதல். 2. To be satisfied, contented; திருப்தி யாதல். 3. To submit, acquiesce, agree; உடன்படுதல். 4. (Gram.) To be regularized, as irregular expressions; வழுவா யினும் ஏற்புடையதாதல். 5. To be settled, fixed up; தீர்மானமாதல். அந்த வீடு எனக் கமைந்தது. 6. To crowd together, be close; நெருங்குதல். 7. To be attached, connected, joined; பொருந்துதல். 9). 8. To suffice, in the 3rd pers. only; போதியதாதல். 9. To abide, remain; தங்குதல். (அகநா. 37.) 10. To prepare; ஆயத்தமாதல். 14). 11. To be suitable, appropriate; தகுதியாதல். 12. To be complete; நிறைதல். 13. To come to an end, to be finished; முடிவடைதல். 14. To be non-existent; இல்லையா தல். (சீவக. 1721.) 15. To be practicable; செய்யக் கூடியதாதல்.

உம் (to fit, prepare, apt) um-> அம் am -> அமை¹ amai - >அமை²-த்தல் amai- , . 1. To effect, accomplish; செய்துமுடித்தல். யாத்தமைப்பதுவே (தொல். பொ. 481). 2. To create; படைத்தல். அரனய னெனவுல கழித்தமைத் துளனே (திவ். திருவாய். 1, 1, 8). 3. To inlay; பதித்தல். 4. To appoint, institute, ordain; நியமித்தல். 5. (Gram.) To regularize, as irregular expressions; வழுவாயினும் அமையுமென்று கொள்ளுதல். 6. To cause to be still, patient; அமைதிபெறச் செய்தல். 7. To bring together; சேர்த்தல். 8. To bear with, tolerate; பொறுத்தல். 9. To control, keep in subjection; அடக்குதல். 10. To prepare, get ready; ஆயத்தஞ் செய்தல். ஐந்து பல்வகையிற் கறிகளும் . . . அமைப்பேன் (பாரத. நாடுகர. 15). 11. To get into possession, get over to one's interest; வசமாக்குதல். (W.)

உம் (to fit, prepare, apt) um-> அம் am -> அம்மம் ammam , n. Food of babies; குழந்தை உணவு. Nurs.

உம் (to fit, prepare, apt) um-> அம் am -> அம்மு ammu , n. Boiled rice; சோறு. Loc. Nurs.
உம் (to fit, prepare, apt) um-> அம் am -> அமரி&sup4; amari , n. Ambrosia, as food of gods; அமிர்தம். அமரி வவ்வி (சேதுபு. கத்துரு. 28).
உம் (to fit, prepare, apt) um-> அம் am -> அமிர்தம் amirtam , n. 1. Ambrosia, nectar, as conferring immortality; தேவருணவு. தோ ளான் . . . அமிர்த மன்னாளை யெய்தி (சீவக. 268). 2 Pleasantness, agreeableness; இனிமை. அமிர் தங்கொள வுயிர்க்குங் கருங்கா ழகிலி னறும்புகை (சீவக. 349). 3. Food; உணவு. தந்தவ ளமிர்த மூட்ட வுண்டு (சீவக. 1178). 4. Water; நீர். (W.) 5. Cow's milk; பசுவின்பால். (தைலவ. தைல. 1.)

அம் am -> அமிர்தம் amirtam -> अमृतम् mṛtam Nectar of immortality, ambrosia, beverage of the gods (opp. विष) supposed to be churned out of the ocean; The Soma juice. Antidote against poison. The residue or leavings of a sacrifice. Water;

உம் (to fit, prepare, apt) um-> அம் am -> அமிழ்து amiḻtu , n. 1. Ambrosia. மிர்தம். அமிழ்தினு மாற்ற வினிதே (குறள், 64). 2. Milk; பால். (பிங்.)

அம் am -> அமிழ்து amiḻtu -> அமிழ்தம் amiḻtam , n. 1. Ambrosia. See அமிர்தம். தானமிழ்த மென்றுணரற் பாற்று (குறள், 11). 2. Food; உணவு. (மணி. 28, 116.)
அம் am -> அமிழ்து amiḻtu -> அமுது amutu , n. 1. Ambrosia; தேவாமிர்தம். (திவ். திருவாய். 1, 7, 9.) 2. Boiled rice; சோறு. (அக. நி.) 3. Elixir; உயிர்தருமருந்து. (பிங்.) 4. Food; உணவு. வாடா மலரும் நல்லமுதும் (ஞானவா. பிரகலா. 8). 5. Water; நீர். (பிங்.) 6. Sweetness; இனிமை. (பிங்.) 7. Milk; பால். (அக. நி.) 8. Affix to the names of articles of food and drink, as offered to God or His devotees, e.g., பருப்பமுது, கறியமுது, தயிரமுது, இலையமுது; உணவுப்பொருள்களோடு உபசாரமாகச் சேர்த்து வழங்குஞ் சொல். (Insc.)
அமுதுகுத்து-தல் amutu-kuttu- , v. intr. < id. +. To put buttermilk into boiled milk to make curds; உறைமோர் குத்துதல். Vaiṣṇ. Brāh. அமுதுசெய்-தல் amutu-cey- , v. tr. < id. +. To dine, a term of respect; உண்ணுதல். வெண்ணெய் . . . அமுதுசெய்து (பாரத. நச்சுப். 1). அமுதுபடி amutu-paṭi , n. < id. +. Rice; அரிசி. (திருவாலவா. 31, 12.) அமுதுபடை-த்தல் amutu-paṭai- , v. intr. < id. +. To serve food; உணவுபரிமாறுத்தல். உழையிடை. யமுது படையென (திருவாலவா. 31, 11). அமுதுபாறை amutu-pāṟai , n. < id. +. Stone slab for mixing boiled rice as with curds or prepared tamarind juice, in Viṣṇu temples; சோற்றுத்திரளை சேர்க்குங்கல். Vaiṣṇ. அமுதுமண்டபம் amutu-maṇṭapam , n. < id. +. Temple kitchen, as the place where food is prepared; கோயில் மடைப்பள்ளி. (Insc.) அமுதூட்டு-தல் amutūṭṭu- , v.intr. < id. + ஊட்டு-. To feed a child with boiled rice in the seventh month; பிள்ளைக்கு ஏழாமாதத்திற் சோறூட்டுதல். (பிங்.) உம் (to fit, prepare, apt) um-> அம் am -> அமுதம் amutam , n. 1. Ambrosia, nectar; தேவருணவு. வானோரமுதம் புரை யுமால் (தொல். பொ. 146). 2. Water; நீர். துலங்கிய வமுதம் (கல்லா. 5). 3. Rain; மழை. (அக. நி.) 4. Taste, relish, flavour; சுவை. (பிங்.) 5. Milk; பால். (பிங்.) 6. Curds; தயிர். (W.) 7. Boiled rice; சோறு. (பிங்.) 8. Salt; உப்பு. (பிங்.)

அமுதமேந்தல் amutam-ēntal , n. Serving food to holy persons; பெரியோர்க்கு ஆகாரமளிக்கை. (சூடா.)
அமுதசுரபி amuta-curapi -, n. Vessel supplying inexhaustible food, used by Maṇimēkalai for feeding the poor; மணிமேகலை கையிலிருந்த ஒர் அட்சயபாத்திரம். (மணி. 11, 44.)
உம் (to fit, prepare, apt) um-> அம் am -> அவிழ்³ aviḻ , n. [K. aguḷu.] 1. Single grain of boiled rice; பருக்கை. அவிழொன் றற் குகமொன்றா (திருவிளை. மூர்த்தி. 27). 2. Boiled rice; சோறு. வாலவிழ் வல்சி (மலைபடு. 183).


உம் (to fit, prepare, apt) um-> அம் am -> (சம் sam)-> சமை¹-தல் samai- , 4 v. [M. chamayu.] intr. 1. To be made, constructed, formed; அமைதல். 2. To get ready, to prepare; ஆயத்தமாதல். வனஞ்செல் வதற்கே சமைந்தார்க டம்மை (கம்பரா. நகர்நீ. 143). 3. To be suitable; பொருத்தமாதல். என்றிவை சமையச் சொன்னான் (கம்பரா. அங்கத. 8).--tr. To commence; தொடங்குதல். உரைசெயச் சமைந்தான் (கம்பரா. யுத்த. மந்திரப். 118).

அம் am -> (சம் sam)-> சமை¹-தல் samai-> சமை²-தல் samai- , 4 v. intr. 1. [M. chamay.] To mature; நிரம்புதல். மலர்ந்து சமைந்த தில்லைகாண் (திருவிருத். 68, வ்யா. 357). 2. To attain puberty, as a girl; பூப்படைதல். மகள் சமைய வில்லை (தனிப்பா. i, 389, 44). 3. To be sultry, hot and close; புழுங்குதல். இந்தக் கூட்டத்திற் சமைந்து விடுகிறது. 4. To be consumed, destroyed; அழிதல். ஐவர் தலைவருஞ் சமைந்தார் (கம்பரா. பஞ்சசே. 67).--tr. To finish; முடித்தல். திருமாலை யைப் பாடிச்சமைந்து (ஈடு, 6, 9, 3).

அம் am -> (சம் sam)-> சமை¹-தல் samai-> சமை³-த்தல் samai- , 11 v. tr. Caus. of சமை¹-. 1. To create; படைத்தல். ஊர்வவெல் லாஞ் சமைக்குவென் (கம்பரா. மிதிலை. 117). 2. To do, perform; செய்தல். சமைப்பது கொலையலாற் றக்க தியாவதோ (கம்பரா. விபீடண. 41). 3. To get ready, prepare; சித்தஞ்செய்தல். நிலத்தைச் சமைத் துக்கொண்டீரேல் (கலிங். 547).

சமை&sup4;-த்தல் samai- , v. . 1. [M. came.] To cook; பாகஞ்செய்தல்.

சமையல் samaiyal , n.. 1. Cooking; சமைக்கை. 2. Cooked food; சமைத்த உணவு. சமையல் தரமாயிருந்தது.

Therefore the stories of Brahmins and Indo Aryan invasion theory supporters about Dravidian Indra are incorrect and without any truth.