புதன், 28 அக்டோபர், 2009

Histroy of Sacrifice in India

Sacrifice:

Sacrifice in Hinduism

Sacrifice in Ancient India.


Although many Hindus are vegetarian, there are Hindu temples in India as well as Nepal where goats and chickens are sacrificed. There are many village temples in Tamilnadu where this kind of sacrifice takes place. It is attested in the Tamil Grammar, namely Tolkaappiyam.

கொற்றவைநிலை koṟṟavai-nilai, n. Theme of offering sacrifice to koṟṟavai and worshipping Her; கொற்றவைக்குப் பலியிட்டுப் பரவும் புறத்துறை. (தொல். பொ. 59.)


In India, some semi-tribal Hindus, as well as some worshipper-communities of Shaktism (the Mother Goddess) offer sacrifice of goats and buffaloes to the deity. Among the Hindus of Nepal, animal sacrifices are common even today, not only for the mother goddess, but also for almost all deities of the Hindu pantheon.


In these non brahminical sacrifices, no yajna is performed or required. These offerings to their Family deity may either be vegitarian or non vegitarian foods.


படை¹-த்தல் paḍai- , 11 v. tr. [K. paḍē.] 1. To serve or distribute, as food to guests; பரிமாறுதல். 2. To offer, as boiled rice, to gods or manes; நிவேதித்தல். கடவுட்கு அமுது படைக்கவேண்டும்.

படைகல் paḍai-kal, n. < படை- +. A large stone slab on which boiled rice is mixed with various ingredients; அமுதுபாறை படைப்பு paḍaippu , n. < படை-. 1. Offering of food, as to a god; நிவேதனம். Colloq. 2. Serving of food; உணவு பரிமாறுகை.

படையல் paḍaiyal, n. < படை-. (W.) Offering; நிவேதனவுணவு. படையல் போட்டான். In Dravidian/Tamil Country, the aforesaid offering is done by the Velala caste by simple modes as worshipful praise for an abundant harvest. It is simply a thanks giving ceremony.

There are different kinds of such offerings to small deities by them.

1.அடியுறை aṭi-y-uṟai , n. 1. Offering to a great personage, as laid at his feet; பாத காணிக்கை. ஈட்டிய பல்பொருள்க ளெம்பிரானுக் கடியுறையென்று (திவ். பெரியாழ். 4, 3, 9). 2. Living in reverence, as for a person worthy of respect; வழிபட்டுறைகை. (கலித். 140, 11.)

2. உயிர்ப்பலி uyir-p-pali, n. . 1. Sacrifice of life; சீவபலி. 2. Warrior beheading himself as an offering to the goddess of war, an ancient custom; வீரன் தன்றலையைக் கொற்ற வைக்குக் கொடுக்கும் பலி. (தொல். பொ. 59, உரை.) 3. Saving a person's life; உயிர்ப்பிச்சை. ஒருயிர்ப் பலி நீ வழங்குகென்றாள் (பிரமோத். 2, 16). This is self sacrification as against Vedic Nara Medha/Nrimedha concepts.

3.காய்மடை kāy-maṭa, n. Offering of fruits, commonly to a ferocious deity; சிறு தெய்வத்திற்குப் படைக்கும் கனிவர்க்கநிவேதனம். (J.)

4.குருதிப்பலி kuruti-p-pali, n.Oblation in which a warrior makes an offering of his own blood to Durgā; வீரன் தன் இரத்தத் தைக் கொற்றவைக்குக் கொடுக்கும் பலி. (தொல். பொ. 59, உரை.) இரத்தபலி iratta-pali, n. . 1. Libation of blood, blood sacrifice; உதிர நைவேத்தி யம்.

5.சீபலி cīpali , n. bali. 1. Rice offering in a temple; கோயிலில் இடும் அன்னபலி.

6. திக்குப்பலி tikku-p-pali, n.Offering to the tutelary deities of the quarters, as in a temple; திக்குத்தேவதைகட்கு இடும் பலி.

7. திருப்போனகம் tiru-p-pōṉakam. Offering of boiled rice to a deity; கடவுட்கு நிவேதித்த அழகு. ஒரு திருப்போனகம் (S. I. I. iii, 82).

8.திருமதுரம் tiru-maturam. A kind of sweet offering in temples; பழம், நெய், சர்க்கரை முதலியவற்றைச் சேர்த்துச் செய்யப்படும் நைவேத்தியப் பொருள். Nāñ.

9.தென்புலத்தார்வேள்வி teṉpulattār- vēḷvi, n. < தென்புலத்தார் +. Daily offering of libations to the manes, one of ai-vakai-vēḷvi,

10.தேங்காயெறி-தல் tēṅkāy-eṟi-, v. intr. . To dash coconuts and break, as offering to an idol; சிதறுதேங்காயுடைத்தல். Nāñ.

11.நேர்¹-தல் nēr- , 4 v. intr. 1. To be fit or appropriate; பொருந்துதல். நேரத் தோன்று மெழுத்தின் சாரியை (தொல். எழுத். 134). .--tr. 1. To grant, bestow; கொடுத்தல். காவாளை நேர்ந்தா னிடம்போலும் (தேவா. 111, 8). 6. [M. nēruka, K. nēr.] To agree, consent; உடன்படுதல். அழும்பில் வேளுரைப்ப நிறையருந்தானை வேந்தனு நேர்ந்து (சிலப். 25, 178).2. To resolve, vow, take vow; நிச்சயித்தல். நற்றார்கலவே மென நேர்ந்தும் (பு. வெ. 12, பெண்பாற். 7). 4. To entreat, pray; வேண்டு தல். (அக. நி.) 5. To say; to speak; சொல்லு தல். சீர்ச்சடகோபன் நேர்தலாயிரத்து (திவ். திரு வாய். 1, 8, 11). 6. To appropriate, as an offering to God; to consecrate, dedicate; பிரார்த் தனையாக வைத்தல். நேர்த்திக்கடன் nērtti-k-kaṭaṉ, n. ) 1. Vow made to a deity; நேர்ந்துகொள் ளும் பிரார்த்தனை. 2. Offering in fulfilment of a vow; பிரார்த்தனைக்காக வைத்த பண்டம்.

12.பட்டைச்சாதம் paṭṭai-c-cātam, n.Offering of rice boiled and set in a cup-like form; கடவுளுக்கு நிவேதிக்கப்படும் அன்னக் கட்டி.

13.பரப்பரிசி parapparici, n.. Offering of rice, etc., to a deity

14. பானகபூசை pāṉaka-pūcai, n. The ceremony of offering pāṉakam

15.பிடிசுட்டுப்படைத்தல் piṭi-cuṭṭu-p-paṭaittal, n. The ceremony of offering cakes to the household deity; வீட்டுத் தெய்வத்திற்குப் பிடிப்பணியாரஞ்சுட்டு நிவேதிக்குஞ் சடங்கு. (W.)

16.பிண்டக்கிரியை piṇṭa-k-kiriyai, n. Ceremony of offering balls of cooked rice to the manes; பிண்டம்வைத்துப் பிதிரர்க்குச் செய் யுஞ் சடங்கு.

17.பிண்டோதகம் piṇṭōtakam, n.Ceremony of offering to the manes balls of cooked rice with water and sesame; பிதிரர்க்குப் பிண்டபலியுடன் எள்ளுக்கலந்த நீர்விடுங் கிரியை.

18.புறமடை puṟa-maṭai : Offering of flesh and spirits, made to ferocious deities, outside a temple, opp. to uṇmaṭai; கோயிற் புறத்துள்ள சிறு தெய்வங்கட்கு இடும் படைப்பு. (W.)

19.பூசணம்² pūcaṇam, n. Coin tied in a piece of cloth and set apart as a votive offering; நேர்த்திக்கடனாக முடிந்துவைக்கும் காசு முதலியன. ஒரு பணமெடுத்துப் பூசணமுடிந்து வை. Nāñ.

20.பூமடை pū-maṭai, n. Offering of flowers; பூப்பலி. (W.)

21.பெரும்பொங்கல் peru-m-poṅkal, n. 1. A festival. See தைப்பொங்கல். (W.) 2. Offering of poṅkal food பொங்கல்வை-த்தல் poṅkal-vai-, v. . intr. To boil rice for offering to a deity; தெய்வத்துக்குப் பொங்கலன்னஞ் சமைத்தல் முத்துச்சொரிதல் muttu-c-corital, n. சொரி-. Offering of boiled rice to a deity; அன்னம் நிவேதிக்கை.

22.பெருமடை peru-maṭai, n. Food offering to a deity; தெய்வங்களுக்கிடும் சோற்றுப் பலி. வளமிகு சிறப்பிற் றெய்வப் பெருமடை கொடுத்து (பெரியபு. கண்ணப். 19).

23.முடிக்காணிக்கை muṭi-k-kāṇikkai, n.Offering of the hair of a person's head which has been allowed to grow for a certain time, in fulfilment of a vow; தெய்வப் பிரார்த்தனையின் பொருட்டு வளர்த்த மயிர் முடியை மழித்துக் காணிக்கையாக இடுகை. Colloq.

24.விலைப்பலி vilai-p-pali, n. Sacrificial offering given to deities, with a view to gaining their favour; பயன்கருதித் தெய்வங்கட் கிடும் பலி. விலைப்பலி யுண்ணும் மலர்பலி பீடிகை (சிலப். 12, 43).

25.வெள்ளிலையமுது veḷḷilai-y-amutu, n. . Offering of betel, as to a diety; தாம்பூல நிவேதனம்.

26.அவலமுது aval-amutu, n. offering of fried rice to the deity;

27.பராவிவை-த்தல் parāvi-vai-, v. tr. To make an offering to a deity in fulfilment of a vow; நேர்த்திக்கடனாகக் கொடுத் தல். (S. I. I. viii, 379.)

28.பூமாலைகொண்டுசொரிதல் pūmālai- koṇṭu-corital, n. < பூமாலை +. A kind of votive flower offering to a temple; நேர்த்திக்கடன்வகை. Nāñ.

29.ஆள்வினைவேள்வி āḷ-viṉai-vēḷvi, n. . Hospitality to guests held to be as meritorious as a sacrifice; விருந்து புறந்தருகை. (பதிற்றுப். 21, 13, உரை.)

30.காடுபலியூட்டு-தல் kāṭu-pali-y-ūṭṭu-, v. intr.To sacrifice cock, etc., to the forest deities before hunting, to ensure a good game; காட்டில்வாழும் தேவர்களுக்குப் பலியிடுதல். காட்டிலுறை தெய்வங்கள்

31.காவு³ kāvu , n. 1. Sacrifice, oblation to inferior deities; சிறுதெய்வங்களுக்கு இடும் பலி. காளிக்குக் காவுகொடுத்தார்கள்

32.குருதியூட்டு-தல் kuruti-y-ūṭṭu-, v. intr. . Lit., to feed with blood. To offer animal sacrifice; மிருகபலிகொடுத்தல்

33.மனைப்பலி maṉai-p-pali, n.Sacrifice to household gods; மனையுறை தெய்வங்கட் கிடும் பலி. மனைப்பலியூட்டினமை கண்டுண்க வூண் (ஆசாரக். 40).

34. இந்திரசிறப்பு intira-ciṟappu, n. . A religious ceremony performed before the midday meal, consisting in the offering of small portions of cooked food to Indra for giving sufficient rain; இந்திர சிறப்புச் செய்வோன் முன்னர் (மணி. 11, 88). worshipful praise of Fire (Agni/Sun) for an abundant harvest: In the earlier Dravidian/Tamil country, the farmers worshipped Fire/Agni as symbol of Sun in the form of light/Lamp.


விளக்குக்குச்சோறூட்டு-தல் viḷakkuk- ku-ch-chōṟūṭṭu-, v. intr. To make an offering of boiled rice before a burning lamp in thanks-giving to the God of Fire, on gathering the first sheaves; நாட்கதிர் கொண்ட தும் அக்கினியின் பொருட்டு விளக்கு முன்பாகப் புதிய சோறு படைத்தல். (W.)

கோத்திரி&sup4; kōttiri, n.Burning wick or small torch placed on an offering of cooked rice to a deity; தெய்வங்களுக்குப் படைப் பிட்டு அதன்பேரில் நாட்டும் திரி அல்லது சிறுபந்தம். Nāñ. This simple Dravidian/Tamil worship and sacrifices were connected together and borrowed by later Vedic people. Thereby self offering or self sacrifices were became other humen being or animal killing (Aswamedha, Naramedha, Sarpa Medha etc) or offering the foods directly into the fire. This led to the development of complicated Yajna System for the survival of Barbaric Brahmins to get Dhakshina/gifts in the forms of wealth/wife.


The Vedic sacrifice: The ancient Vedic religion of the Aryans involved animal sacrifice on some special occasions and may have disappeared with the influence of Buddhism, Jainism and later reforms in Hinduism. In fact, yajna typically refers to any fire-offering or such equivalent ritual of the Vedic Indo-Aryans. The offerings were usually of vegetable origin, including saw-dust for the fire, grains like barley, etc. Milk and ghee (clarified butter) was also offered in large quantities. A mysterious, unidentified plan's juice, called Soma, was offered at special Soma sacrifices. As said earlier, animal flesh seems to have been offered at larger sacrifices. Brahmins (Paarppaan) are claiming that they are the supporters of Non violance theory/Ahimsa Tattva and they are pretending as vegitarian. To the contrary, their Aryan Vedas/books supports animal/human being sacrifies among the other things. These offering and sacrifice are mostly done on behalf of the king by the Brahmins for Dhakshinas/Gifts. It is not a ceremony of thanks giving of Tamil Country, wherein the offerer himself offers his belongings or his life directly to God. In Brahminical Sacrifice, Brahmina becomes Agent to the King for his victory. These brahmins did the same for Dakshina/Gift on behalf of Merchants too. In rarest cases, they did it for so called Sudras too.

शूद्रः याजकः śūdrḥ yājakḥ. one who conducts a sacrifice for a Śūdra.

1. The Ashvamedha; "horse sacrifice" was one of the most important royal rituals of so called Vedic religion, described in detail in the Yajurveda (TS 7.1-5, VSM 22–25[1] and the pertaining commentary in the Shatapatha Brahmana ŚBM 13.1–5). The Rigveda does have descriptions of horse sacrifice, notably in hymns RV 1.162-163 (which are themselves known as aśvamedha), but does not allude to the full ritual according to the Yajurveda. The Ashvamedha could only be conducted by a king (rājā). Its object was the acquisition of power and glory, the sovereignty over neighbouring provinces, and general prosperity of the kingdom. The horse to be sacrificed must be a stallion, more than 24, but less than 100 years old. The horse is sprinkled with water, and the Adhvaryu and the sacrificer whisper mantras into its ear. Anyone who should stop the horse is ritually cursed, and a dog is killed symbolic of the punishment for the sinners. The horse is then set loose towards the North-East, to roam around wherever it chooses, for the period of one year (or half a year, according to some commentators). The horse is associated with the Sun, and its yearly course. If the horse wanders into neighbouring provinces hostile to the sacrificer, they must be subjugated. The wandering horse is attended by a hundred young men, sons of princes or high court officials, charged with guarding the horse from all dangers and inconvenience. During the absence of the horse, an uninterrupted series of ceremonies is performed in the sacrificer's home. After the return of the horse, more ceremonies are performed. The horse is yoked to a gilded chariot, together with three other horses, and RV 1.6.1,2 (YV VSM 23.5,6) is recited. The horse is then driven into water and bathed. After this, it is anointed with ghee by the chief queen and two other royal consorts. The chief queen anoints the fore-quarters, and the others the barrel and the hind-quarters. They also embellish the horse's head, neck, and tail with golden ornaments. The sacrificer offers the horse the remains of the night's oblation of grain. After this, the horse, a hornless he-goat, a wild ox (go-mrga, Bos gavaeus) are bound to sacrificial stakes near the fire, and seventeen other animals are attached to the horse. A great number of animals, both tame and wild, are tied to other stakes, according to a commentator 609 in total (YV VSM 24 consists of an exact enumeration). Then the horse is slaughtered (YV VSM 23.15, tr. Griffith) Steed, from thy body, of thyself, sacrifice and accept thyself. Thy greatness can be gained by none but thee. The chief queen ritually calls on the king's fellow wives for pity. The queens walk around the dead horse reciting mantras. The chief queen then has to mimic copulation with the dead horse, while the other queens ritually utter obscenities.On the next morning, the priests raise the queen from the place where she has spent the night with the horse. With the Dadhikra verse (RV 4.39.6, YV VSM 23.32), a verse used as a purifier after obscene language. The three queens with a hundred golden, silver and copper needles indicate the lines on the horse's body along which it will be dissected. The horse is dissected, and its flesh roasted. Various parts are offered to a host of deities and personified concepts with cries of svaha "all-hail". The Ashvastuti or Eulogy of the Horse follows (RV 1.162, YV VSM 24.24–45), concluding with: May this Steed bring us all-sustaining riches, wealth in good kine, good horses, manly offspring Freedom from sin may Aditi vouchsafe us: the Steed with our oblations gain us lordship! In the Mahabharata, the sacrifice is performed by Yudhishtira (Book 14), his brothers guarding the horse as it roamed into neighbouring kingdoms. Arjuna defeats all challengers. The Mahabharata says that the Ashvamedha as performed by Yudhishtira adhered to the letter of the Vedic prescriptions. After the horse was cut into parts, Draupadi had to sit beside the parts of the horse. In the Ramayana, Rama's father Dasharatha performs the Ashvamedha, which is described in the bala kanda (book 1) of the poem. The Ramayana provides far more detail than the Mahabharata. The ritual take place for three days preceded by sage Rishyasringa and Vasista(1.14.41,42). Again it is stated that the ritual was performed in strict compliance with Vedic prescriptions (1.14.10). Dasaratha's chief wife Kausalya circumambulates the horse and ritually pierces its flesh (1.14.33). Then "Queen Kausalya desiring the results of ritual disconcertedly resided one night with that horse that flew away like a bird." [1-14-34]. The fat of the sacrificed horse is then burnt in ritual fire and after that the remaining parts of the body with spoons made out of Plaksha tree branches(1.14.36,38-39). At the conclusion of the ritual Dasharatha symbolically offers his other wives to the presiding priests, who return them in exchange for expensive gifts (1.14.35). The four sides of the Yagna alter is also donated to priests who had done the ritual and it is exchanged by them for gold, silver, cows and other gifts(1.15.43-44). Vedanta and Puranas The Brhadaranyaka Upanishad (a mystical appendix to the Shatapatha Brahmana and likely the oldest of the Upanishads) has a creation myth where Mṛtyu "Death" takes the shape of a horse, and includes an identification of the Ashvamedha with the Sun: Then he became a horse (ashva), because it swelled (ashvat), and was fit for sacrifice (medhya); and this is why the horse-sacrifice is called Ashva-medha. Therefore the sacrificers offered up the purified horse belonging to Prajapati, (as dedicated) to all the deities. Verily the shining sun [ye tapati] is the Asvamedha, and his body is the year; Agni is the sacrificial fire (arka), and these worlds are his bodies. These two are the sacrificial fire and the Asvamedha-sacrifice, and they are again one deity, viz. Death. (BrUp 1.2.7. trans. Müller) The Upanishads describe ascetic austerities as an "inner Ashvamedha", as opposed to the "outer" royal ritual performed in the physical world, in keeping with the general tendency of Vedanta to move away from priestly ritual towards spiritual introspection; verse 6 of the Avadhuta Upanishad has: "Through extreme devotion [sam-grahaneṣṭi] he [the ascetic] performs ashvamedha within [anta]. That is the greatest sacrifice [mahā-makha] and the greatest meditation [mahā-yoga]." According to the Brahma Vaivarta Purana (185.180),[9] the Ashvamedha is one of five rites forbidden in the Kali Yuga.


2. Purushamedha; "human sacrifice" is a Vedic yajna (ritual) described in the Yajurveda (VS 30–31). The verse describes people from all classes and of all descriptions tied to the stake and offered to Prajapati. The Purusha Sukta describes the process of creation of matter from the cosmic Purusha (universal spirit) which is shown as a human-like entity. The Purusha Medha is an enactment of the sacrifice of Purusha that leads to creation. The ritual in many aspects resembles that of the Ashvamedha (horse sacrifice), with, according to Griffith (1899) man, the noblest victim, being actually or symbolically sacrificed instead of the Horse, and men and women of various tribes, figures, complexions, characters, and professions being attached to the sacrificial stakes in place of the tame and wild animals enumerated in Book XXIV [VS 24].

These nominal victims were afterwards released uninjured, and, so far as the text of the White Yajurveda goes, the whole ceremony was merely emblematical. The ceremony evokes the primordial mythical sacrifice of Purusha, the "Cosmic Man", and the officiating Brahman recites the Purusha sukta (RV 10.90 = AVS 5.19.6 = VS 31.1–16). However, in a late Vedic Brahmana text, the Vadhula Anvakhyana 4.108 (ed. Caland, Acta Orientalia 6, p.229) actual human sacrifice and even ritual anthropophagy is attested: "one formerly indeed offered a man as victim for Prajāpati", for example Karṇājāya. "Dhārtakratava Jātūkarṇi did not wish to eat of the ida portion of the offered person; the gods therefore exchanged man as a sacrificial animal with a horse." References to anthropophagy are also found in Taittiriya 7.2.10 and Katha Samhita 34.11.

நரபலி nara-pali, n. Human sacrifice; மனிதபலி. இச்சையி னரபலி யிட்ட தலையை (அரிச். பு. விவாக. 121).


Criticism and controversy

1. Cārvāka View:- The earliest recorded criticism of the ritual comes from the Cārvāka, an atheistic school of Indian philosophy that assumed various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious indifference. A quotation of the Cārvāka from Madhavacharya's Sarva-Darsana-Sangraha states: “ The three authors of the Vedas were buffoons, knaves, and demons. All the well-known formulae of the pandits, jarphari, turphari, etc. and all the obscene rites for the queen commanded in Aswamedha, these were invented by buffoons, and so all the various kinds of presents to the priests, while the eating of flesh was similarly commanded by night-prowling demons. ” The mock bestiality and necrophilia involved in the ritual caused considerable consternation among the scholars first editing the Yajurveda. Griffith (1899) omits verses VSM 23.20–31 (the ritual obscenities), protesting that they are "not reproducible even in the semi-obscurity of a learned European language" (alluding to other instances where he renders explicit scenes in Latin rather than English). A. B. Keith's 1914 translation also omits verses.


2. Kanchi Sankarachari's View: According to Kanchi Sankarachari, A yaga or sacrifice takes shape with the chanting of the mantras, the invoking of the deity and the offering of havis (oblation). The mantras are chanted (orally) and the deity is meditated upon (mentally). The most important material required for homa is the havis offered in the sacrificial fire-- in this "work" the body is involved. Ghee (clarified butter) is an important ingredient of the oblation. While ghee by itself is offered as an oblation, it is also used to purify other sacrificial materials - in fact this is obligatory. In a number of sacrifices the vapa(fat or marrow) of animals is offered.

Madvacharya was against the killing of any pasu for a sacrifice. In his compassion he said that a substitute for the vapa must be made with flour and offered in the fire. In the concluding passage of the Chandogya Upanishad whwre ahimsa or non-violence is extolled you find these words, "Anyatra tirthebhyah". It means ahimsa must be practised except with regard to Vedic rites. According to Kanchi Sankarachari, there are a number of yajnas in which only ghee (ajya) is offered in the fire. In some, havisyanna (rice mixed with ghee) is offered and in some the cooked grains called "caru" or "purodasa", a kind of baked cake. In agnihotri milk is poured into the fire; in aupasana unbroken rice grains (aksata) are used; and in samidadhana the sticks of the palasa (flame of the forest). In sacrifices in which the vapa of animals is offered, only a tiny bit of the remains of the burnt offering is partaken of - and of course in the form of prasada. These offerings by the Brahmins for Kings etc into fire are totally in controduction to the offerings by the Velala Farmer to God direectly in Tamil Country. Justification offered by the Brahmin is that the slaughtering the animal may be less painfull than the others, as it involves an immediate severing of the whole neck of the animal by one quick stroke of a sword or an axe (otherwise great calamities are believed to befall the sacrificer), rather than slitting of the throat. According to Kanchi Sankarachari, one is enjoined to perform twenty-one sacrifices. These are of three types:pakayajna, haviryajna and somayajna. In each category there are seven subdivisions. In all the seven pakayajnas as well as in the first five haviryajnas there is no animal sacrifice. It is only from the sixth haviryajna onwards (it is called "nirudhapasubandha") that animals are sacrificed. Brahmins sacrificed herds and herds of animals and gorged themselves on their meat. The Buddha saved such herds when they were being taken to the sacrificial altar was made. However Kanchi Sankarachari wants to give some excuses and to justify animal sacrifice. According to him, there is no sacrifice in which a large number of animals are killed and for vajapeya which is the highest type of yajna performed by Brahmins, only twenty-three animals are mentioned and for asvamedha (horse sacrifice), the biggest of the sacrifices conducted by imperial rulers, one hundred animals are mentioned. Brahmins/Paarppan performed these sacrifices only to satisfy their appetite for meat and that the talk of pleasing the deities was only a pretext. There are rules regarding the meat to be carved out from a sacrificial animal, the part of the body from which it is to be taken and the quantity each rtvik can partake of as prasada (idavatarana). He tries to give clarification/justification that this is not more than the size of a pigeon-pea and it is to be swallowed without anything added to taste. Brahmins practised deception by making them a pretext to eat meat. An argument runs thus: In the eons gone by mankind possessed high ideals and noble character. Men could sacrifice animals for the well-being of the world because they had great affection in their hearts and were selfless. They offered even cows and horses in sacrifice and had meat for sraddha. As householders, in their middle years, they followed the karmamarga (the path of works) and performed rites to please the deities for the good of the world. But, in doing so, they desired no rewards. Later, they renounced all works, all puja, all observances, to become sannyasins delighting themselves in their Atman. They were men of such refinement and noble character that, if their brother, a king, died heirless they begot a son by his wife without any passion in their hearts and without a bit detracting from their brahmacharya. Their only motive was that the kingdom should not be plunged in anarchy for want of an heir to the throne. Further Kanchi Sankarachari Says that in our own Kali age we do not have such men who are desireless in their actions, who can subdue their minds and give up all works to become ascetics and who will remain chaste at heart even in the company of women. So it is contended that the following are to be eschewed in the Kali age: horse and cow sacrifices, meat in the sraddha ceremony, sannyasa, begetting a son by the husband's brother.

As authority we have the following verse:

Asvalambham gavalambham sanyasam palapatrikam Devarena sutotpattim kalau panca vivarjayet

According to one view "asvalambham" in this verse should be substituted with "agniyadhanam". If you accept this version it would mean that even those sacrifices in which animals are not killed should not be performed. In other words it would mean a total prohibition of all sacrifices. The very first in the haviryajna category is agniyadhana. If that were to be prohibited it would mean that, apart from small sacrifices called "pakayajnas", no yajna can be performed. According to great men such a view is wrong. Sankara Bhagavatpada, whose mission in life was the re-establishment of Vedic dharma, did not stop with the admonishment that Vedas must be chanted every day ("Vedo nityam adhiyatam"). He insisted that rites imposed on us by the Vedas must be performed: " "Taduditam karma svanusthiyatam. " Of Vedic rites, sacrifices occupy the foremost place. If they are to be eschewed what other Vedic rites are we to perform? It may be that certain types of sacrifices need not be gone through in the age of Kali. If, according to the verse, agniyadhana is interdicted, and no big sacrifice is to be performed in the age of Kali, why should gavalambha (cow sacrifice) have been mentioned in the prohibited category? If agniyadhana is not permissible, it goes without saying that gavalambha also is prohibited. So, apart from certain types, all sacrifices are to be performed at all times. According to another verse quoted from the Dharmasastra, so long as the varnasrama system is followed in the age of Kali, in however small a measure, and so long as the sound of the Vedas pervades the air, works like agniyadhana must be performed and the sannyasasrama followed, the stage of life in which there is no karma. The prohibition in Kali applies to certain types of animal sacrifices, meat in sraddha ceremonies and begetting a son by the husband's brother..

3. True Meaning of Medha: Brahminical view of sacrificing horse or human being is due to confusion or wrong spelling/reading i.e.पाठ दोषः a false reading

There are 3 so called dhatu patas.

1. मेथ् mēth To hurt, injure, kill.

2. मेदः mēdḥ Fat.

3. मेधः mēdhḥ1 A sacrifice.

In the Asvamedha, killing the horse in the sacrifice and swallowing of the fat by Brahmins are involved by combining the meaning of मेथ् mēth, मेदः mēdḥ and मेधःmēdhḥ. In Purushamedha, Killing of human being in the sacrifice involved.

Etymology of Yajna:

According to Sanskrit Dictionaries Yajna is derived from the so called Dhatu यज् yaj. To sacrifice, worship with sacrifices (often with instr. of words meaning 'a sacrifice'). However the meaning assinged to the said Dhatu is wrong if we applies the meaning to the following yajnas. 1. Ashvamedha Yajna= Horse killing worship/Sacrifice 2. Purushamedha Yajna= Human killing worship/Sacrifice 3. Sarpa Yajna= Serpant Worship/Sacrifice The meaning of the word Yajna should be a different one. Lets see. पुत्रः 1 A son; इष्टिः, -इष्टिका f. a sacrifice performed to obtain male issue.Generally Sanskrit Nighantu says that इष्टिः iṣṭiḥ and यज्ञः yajñḥ are derived from the same source. If we apply the meaning of Worship or sacrifice to Putra iṣṭiḥ is, then the meaning of Putra iṣṭiḥ would be worshiping or sacrificing of son. Therefore the meaning of worship or sacrifice is not appropriate.

True meaning of Yajna.

We have to find out the true meaning of yajna with the help of Tamil and Sanskrit words. வேள் vēḷ , n. < வேள்-. 1. Marriage; கலி யாணம். வேள்வாய் கவட்டை நெறி (பழமொ. 360). 2. Desire; விருப்பம். (W.) வேள்-தல் [வேட்டல்] vēḷ- , 9 v. tr. [K. bēḷ.] To offer sacrifices; யாகஞ் செய்தல். ஓதல் வேட்டல் (பதிற்றுப். 24, 6). வேள்வு vēḷvu , n. < வேள்-. 1. Sacrifice; யாகம். விழவும் வேள்வும் விடுத்தலொன்றின்மையால் (சீவக. 138).

వేలిమి [ vēlimi ] [Telugu.] n. A burnt offering. హోమము. "వేలిమియున్ సురార్చనయు, విప్రసపర్యయుజిక్కె." Swa. ii. 57. వేలిమి కట్టెలు firewood used in a burnt sacrifice. వేలిమిబొట్టు a mark made on the forehead with the ashes from a burnt sacrifice, రక్ష. "నొసలివేలిమిబొట్టు మసిమీద మృగనాభితిలకంబు బటువుగా దీర్చవచ్చు." R. ii. 109. వేలుచు [ vēlucu ] , వేల్చు or వ్రేల్చు vēluṭsu. [Telugu.] v. a. To offer up a burnt sacrifice. హోమముచేయు. infin. వేల్వ. వేల్పించు vēl-pinṭsu. v. a. To cause to offer a burnt offering. యోమముచేయించు. "యోమముల్ వేల్పించి." ND. ii. 553. వేలిమి vēlimi-> వ్రేల్మి [ vrēlmi ] [Telugu] n. A burnt offering, an offering by fire. హోమము. "దర్భలలును వ్రేల్మిసమిధలును." T. i. 27. టీ హోమమునకు చిదుగులును.


இச்சியை icciyai, n. 1. Gift; offering; கொடை. 2. Sacrifice; யாகம். 3. Worship; பூசனை.


இட்டி iṭṭi, n. 1. Epigrammatic verse; சங்கிரகச்செய்யுள். 2. Gift; கொடை. 3. Worship; பூசை. 4. Desire; longing; இச்சை.

இட்டி² iṭṭi, n. A religious sacrifice; யாகம். இட்டிகளும் பலவியற்றி (காஞ்சிப்பு. கடவுள். 19).


இட்டம் iṭṭam, n. 1. Purificatory ceremony; ஸம்ஸ்காரம். 2. Sacrifice; யாகம். 3. Yōga; யோகம்.

இட்டம்¹ iṭṭam, n. 1. Desire, wish, inclination of mind, will; விருப்பம். நம் பனை நாடொறு மிட்டத்தா லினிதாக நினைமினோ (தேவா. 20, 8). 2. Love, attachment, affection; அன்பு. இட்டமான வியற்புக ரோனிடங் கிட்டினான் (கந்தபு. சுக்கிரனுப. 15). 3. Friendship; சிநேகம். Colloq.


இட்டன் iṭṭaṉ, n.1. Friend; சிநே கிதன். 2. Endeared person; விருப்பத்திற்கிடனான வன். நானிட்டனென்றருள்பட்டர் (அஷ்டப். திருவரங் கக். காப்பு, 4). 3. Master; எசமானன். இட்டனெ னக் காண்பரவ னேவலரை (சைவச. மாணாக். 16).


इष्टिः iṣṭiḥ f. 1 Wish, request, desire. -2 Seeking, striving to get. -3 Any desired object. -4 A desired rule or desideratum; (a term used with reference to Patañjali's additions to Kātyāyana's Vārttikas; -5 Impulse, hurry. -6 Invitation, order. -7 A sacrifice.-8 An oblation consisting of butter, food &c.-Comp. -अयनम् a sacrifice lasting for a long time.

इष्ट iṣṭa 1 Wished, desired, longed for, wished for; -2 Beloved, agreeable, liked, favourite, dear; ˚आत्मजः Mu.2.8 fond of sons. -3 Worshipped, reverenced. -4 Respected. -5 Approved, regarded as good. -6 Desirable; see इष्टापूर्त. -6 Valid. -7 Sacrificed, worshipped with sacrifices. -8 Supposed (कल्पित); oft. used in Līlavatī. -ष्टः A sacrifice. -ष्टम् 1 Wish, desire. -2 A holy ceremony -3 A sacrifice; Bṛi. Up.4.1.

इज्य ijya To be worshipped. -ज्या 1 A sacrifice; जगत्प्रकाशं तदशेषमिज्यया R.3.48,1.68,15.2;

If we look at these Tamil and Sanskrit words, we can find out that the actual meaning of the word yajna is desires. Lets apply of the said meaning.


Putra ishti= Desire to obtain sons.


Cf: புத்திரகாமேட்டி puttirakāmēṭṭi, (யாழ். அக.) n. / Skt. puttra-kāmēṣṭi. desire to obtain sons; ஆண்மகப்பேறுவிரும்பிச் செய்யும் யாகம். (இராமநா. பாலகா. 7.)


However the actual meaning of Desire for the word Yajna is missing in Sanskrit. How that word was created. Lets see the etymology of Yajna.


Etymology of Yajna:-


உல் ul (to meet, to love, to attach)-> அல் al ->எல் el -> (எக்கு ekku)-> ஏக்கம் ēkkam, n. [M. ēkkam.] 1. Despondency, depression of spirits; விரும்பியது பெறாமையால்வருந் துக்கம். வானவ ரேக்கமுஞ் சிதைய (கந்தபு. துணைவர்வரு. 30). 2. Fear, fright, panic; அச்சம். ஏக்கம் . . . அமராபதிக்குஞ்செய் மதுராபுரி (மீனாட். பிள்ளைத். 77). 3. Craving, eager desire; ஆசை.


ஏக்கம் ēkkam-> ஏக்கறவு ēkkaṟavu, n. Desire, lust; இச்சை. ஒருத்தி முலைக்கிடந்த வேக்கறவால் (கம் பரா. மாயாசன. 83).

ஏக்கம் ēkkam->ஏக்கறு-தல் ēkkaṟu-, v. 1. [T. ēkāru.] To suffer from weariness, to languish; இளைத்து இடைதல். கடைக்க ணேக்கற (சீவக. 1622). 2. To bow before superiors, as one seeking some favour at their hands; ஆசையால் தாழ்தல். ஏக்கற்றுங் கற்றார் (குறள், 395).--tr. To desire; விரும்புதல். மதியேக்கறூஉ மாசறு திருமு கத்து (சிறுபாண். 157).


ஏக்கம் ēkkam->எக்கியம் ekkiyam, n. Sacrifice, ceremony in which oblations are offered; யாகம். (திருவானைக். கோச்செங். 70.)


ஏக்கம் ēkkam->எச்சம்² eccam, n. எக்கியம். எச்சத் திமையோரை நிரவிட்டு (தேவா. 571, 4).


எச்சன் echchaṉ, n. 1. One who performs a sacrifice; யாகஞ்செய்வோன். தக்கனையு முனிந்தெச்சன் றலைகொண்டான்காண் (தேவா. 596, 9). 2. The deity supposed to be present at a sacrifice and to accept the offerings given; யாகதேவதை. இரிந்திடுகின்றதோ ரெச்சனென்பவன் (கந்தபு. யாகசங். 38).


எச்சம்² echcham->यजः yajḥ 1 A sacrifice. -2 Fire which is used for sacrifice.


எச்சம்² echcham-> यजस् yajas n. Ved. 1 Worship; -2 A sacrifice.

यजनम् yajanam 1 The act of sacrificing. -2 A sacrifice; -3 A place of sacrifice;


यजमान yajamāna a. Sacrificing, worshipping. -नः 1 A person who performs a regular sacrifice and pays its expenses; -2 A person who employs a priest or priests to sacrifice for him. -3 (Hence) A host, patron, rich man. -4 The head of a family. -5 The head of a tribe. -Comp. -शिष्यः the pupil of a sacrificing Brāhmaṇa (of one who himself per- forms a sacrifice); Ś.4. यजमानकः yajamānakḥ

यजमानकः = यजमान.


यजाक yajākaa. Worshipping.

यजिः yajiḥ 1 A sacrificer. -2 The act of sacrificing. -3 A sacrifice;

எச்சன் echchaṉ-> यजिन् a. 1 A worshipper, sacrificer. -2 Honouring, adoring.

எச்சில் eccil , n. Leavings of sacrificial oblation made of pounded rice and offered in postsherds. புரோடாசம். முத்தீப் பேணிய மன்னெச்சில் (பரிபா. 5, 42).


எச்சம்² echcham-> எசு esu, n. Yajur-Vēda; யசுர்வே தம். இருக்கெசுக் சாமவேத நாண்மலர்கொண்டு (திவ். பெரியாழ். 5, 1, 6).


எசு esu-> यजुस् yajus 1 A sacrificial prayer or formula; -2 A text of the Yajurveda, or the body of sacred mantras in prose muttered at sacrifices; -3 N. of the Yajurveda. -4 Ved. Worship, oblation.


எச்சம்² echcham->எஞ்ஞம் eññam, n. See எக்கி யம். கிருக வெஞ்ஞ விதியினை (மச்சபு. அநுக்கிர. 26).


எஞ்ஞம் eññam-> यज्ञः yajñḥ 1 A sacrifice, sacrificial rite; any offering or oblation; -2 An act of worship, any pious or devotional act.

यज्ञिकः yajñikḥ The Palāśa tree.

यज्ञिन् yajñin a. Full of sacrifices.

यज्ञिय yajñiya a.1 Belonging to or fit for a sacrifice, sacrificial; -2 Sacred, holy, divine. -3 Adorable, worthy of worship. -4 Devout, pious. -यः 1 A god, deity. -2 The third or Dvāpara age. -3 The Udumbara tree. -यम् Implements or materials for sacrifice -Comp. -देशः the land of sacrifices; -शाला 1 a sacrificial hall. -2 a temple.

यज्ञीय yajñīya. a. Sacrificial;

यज्य yajya a. Fit to be worshipped, adorable. -ज्या, -ज्यम् 1 Worshipping. -2 A sacrifice.

यज्यु yajyuु a. 1 Pious, devout. -2 Worshipping, adoring, honouring. -3 Sacrificing. -ज्युः 1 A priest familiar with the Yajurveda (अध्वर्यु). -2 The institutor of a sacrifice (यजमान). -3 An adherent to the यजुःशाखा.

यज्वन् yajvan a. (-यज्वरी f.) Sacrificing, worshipping, adoring &c. -m. 1 One who performs sacrifices in accordance with Vedic precepts, a per- former of sacrifices;


याजनम् yājanam The act of performing or conducting a sacrifice;

याजमानम् yājamānam That part of a sacrifice which is performed by the Yajamāna himself.
याजयितृ yājayitṛm. The officiating priest at a sacrifice.

याजः yājḥ 1 A sacrificer. -2 Boiled rice. -3 Food in general.

याजकः yājakḥ A sacrificer, a sacrificing priest;

याजनम् yājanam The act of performing or conducting a sacrifice; अध्यापनमध्ययनं यजनं याजनं तथा । दानं प्रतिग्रहं चैव ब्राह्मणानामकल्पयत् ॥ Ms.1.88;3.65.

याजमानम् yājamānam That part of a sacrifice which is performed by the Yajamāna himself.

याजयितृ yājayitṛ m. The officiating priest at a sacrifice.

याजिः yājiḥ The institutor of a sacrifice. -f. A sacrifice.

याजिन् yājin a. 1 (At the end of comp.) Sacrificing; -2 Worshipping, adoring.

याजुकः yājukḥ A sacrificer (as इष्टियाजुक); Bṛi. Up.1.5.2. .

याज्ञिक yājñika a. (-की f.) Belonging to a sacrifice; Bhāg.4.31.1. -कः 1 A sacrificer or a sacrificing priest. -2 A ritualist. -3 The Kuśa grass. -4 N. of several trees अश्वत्थ, खदिर, पलाश, &c. -Comp. -आश्रयः N. of Viṣṇu.

याज्ञिय yājñiya a. 1 Sacrificial. -2 Fit for a sacrifice. -यः One skilled in sacrificial rites.

याज्य yājya a. 1 To be sacrificed. -2 Sacrificial. -3 One for whom a sacrifice is performed. -4 One who is allowed by Śāstras to sacrifice. -ज्यः 1 A sacrificer, the institutor of a sacrifice; Mb.13. 93.27. -2 The performer of a sacrifice for another. -ज्यम् The presents or fee received for officiating at a sacrifice. -ज्या a sacrificial text or verse, Ṛik (recited at the offering of an oblation); याज्यया

याज्वनः yājvanḥ The son of a sacrificer.


ஏக்கம் ēkkam-> யாகம் yākam, n.1. Sacrifice, 2. Worship; திருவாராதனம்.


யாகம் yāgam-> यागः yāgḥ 1 An offering, a sacrifice, an oblation; -2 Any cere- mony in which oblations are presented, with a direct reference to a deity; -3 Presentation, grant. -Comp. -कण्टकः a bad sacrificer -करणम् a sacrificial ceremony. -संप्रदानम् the recipient of a sacrifice. Kāśi. on P.IV.2.24. -सूत्रम् the sacrificial sacred thread.


உல் ul (to meet, to love, to attach)-> இல் il-> இச்சி²-த்தல் ichchi-, 11 v. tr. To desire, wish, crave for, covet; விரும்புதல். (பாரத. திரௌபதி. 75.)


இச்சை ichchai , n.1. Wish, desire, inclination; விருப்பம். (திருவாச. 41, 9.) 2. Devoted service; பத்தியோடு புரியந் தொண்டு. ஆட்கொண்டாய்க் கென்னினி யான்செயு மிச்சைகளே (தேவா. 672, 6).


இச்சை ichchai ,-> இச்சியை ichchiyai, n. 1. Gift; offering; கொடை. 2. Sacrifice; யாகம். 3. Worship; பூசனை.


இச்சை ichchai ,-> இச்சியை ichchiyai-> इज्य ijya To be worshipped. -ज्या 1 A sacrifice;

உல் ul (to meet, to love, to attach)-> இல் il-> இட்டி iṭṭi, n. 1. Epigrammatic verse; சங்கிரகச்செய்யுள். 2. Gift; கொடை. 3. Worship; பூசை. 4. Desire; longing; இச்சை.

இட்டி² iṭṭi, n. A religious sacrifice; யாகம். இட்டிகளும் பலவியற்றி (காஞ்சிப்பு. கடவுள். 19).


இட்டி² iṭṭi-> இட்டம் iṭṭam, n. 1. Purificatory ceremony; . 2. Sacrifice; யாகம். 3. Yōga; யோகம்.


இட்டி² iṭṭi-> इष्टिः iṣṭiḥ f. 1 Wish, request, desire. -2 Seeking, striving to get. -3 Any desired object. -4 A desired rule or desideratum; (a term used with reference to Patañjali's additions to Kātyāyana's Vārttikas; -5 Impulse, hurry. -6 Invitation, order. -7 A sacrifice.-8 An oblation consisting of butter, food &c.-Comp. -अयनम् a sacrifice lasting for a long time.

இட்டி² iṭṭi-> இட்டம்¹ iṭṭam, n. 1. Desire, wish, inclination of mind, will; விருப்பம். நம் பனை நாடொறு மிட்டத்தா லினிதாக நினைமினோ (தேவா. 20, 8). 2. Love, attachment, affection; அன்பு. இட்டமான வியற்புக ரோனிடங் கிட்டினான் (கந்தபு. சுக்கிரனுப. 15). 3. Friendship; சிநேகம். Colloq.

இட்டி² iṭṭi-> இட்டம்¹ iṭṭam-> इष्ट iṣṭa p. p. 1 Wished, desired, longed for, wished for; -2 Beloved, agreeable, liked, favourite, dear; ˚आत्मजः Mu.2.8 fond of sons. -3 Worshipped, reverenced. -4 Respected. -5 Approved, regarded as good. -6 Desirable; see इष्टापूर्त. -6 Valid. -7 Sacrificed, worshipped with sacrifices. -8 Supposed (कल्पित); oft. used in Līlavatī. -ष्टः A sacrifice. -ष्टम् 1 Wish, desire. -2 A holy ceremony -3 A sacrifice; Bṛi. Up.4.1.


இட்டம்¹ iṭṭam-> இட்டன் iṭṭaṉ, n.1. Friend; சிநே கிதன். 2. Endeared person; விருப்பத்திற்கிடனான வன். நானிட்டனென்றருள்பட்டர் (அஷ்டப். திருவரங் கக். காப்பு, 4). 3. Master; எசமானன். இட்டனெ னக் காண்பரவ னேவலரை (சைவச. மாணாக். 16).


Reasons of Yajna


Brahmins performed these ceremonies because they desired Dhakshina/Gifts on behalf of Kings who desired victory and without the state of enemy. Brahmins performed these ceremonies for Vysyas who desired wealth. Rarely these Brahmins performed it for Sudras too.

However the Sacrifice procedures of Brahmins are totally different from sacrifice/offering Tamil Country. However Sanskrit has borrowed these Tamil Words and Simple offering/sacrifice concepts. Further Sanskrit pandits and Brahmins have developed them as complicated sacrifice/offers.


Brahmin Priests:-


The Brahmins priests offered into the fire by enchanting Rigvedha to praise Demi gods like Indra, Agni, Varuna etc. Therefore the function of these Brahmin priests is to praise.


உல் ul [to praise)->புல் pul->(போல் Pol)->போற்று PoTTu/PoTRu = v. tr. 1. To praise, applaud; துதித்தல்.2. To worship; வணங்குதல். (பிங்.)

போற்றி pōTTi . n. 1. Praise, applause, commendation; புகழ்மொழி. (W.) 2. Brahman temple-priest of Malabar; கோயிற் பூசைசெய்யும் மலையாளநாட்டுப் பிராமணன். (W.) 3. See போத்தி, 1.--int. Exclamation of praise; துதிச்சொல்வகை.

போத்தி pōtti, n. < போற்றி. Brahman temple-priest in Malabar; மலையாளத்திலுள்ள கோயிலருச் சகன். போற்றி pōTTi (PoTRi)->होत्रा hōtrā होत्रा 1 A sacrifice. -2 Praise;-3 Ved. Speech. -4 The office of होतृक priest.

போற்றி pōTTi/pōTRi -> होत्रिन् hōtrin m. A sacrificing priest who offers the oblations.

போற்றி pōTTi/pōTRi -> होत्री hōtrī The offerer of oblations, one of the eight forms of Śiva;

(P=H changes as in Tamil and Kannada)

போற்றி pōTTi/pōTRi->पोतृ pōtṛ m. 1 One of the sixteen officiating priests at a sacrifice (assistant of the priest called ब्रह्मन्).

போற்றி pōTTi/pōTRi->पोतृ pōtṛ->होतृ a. Sacrificing, offering oblations with fire; . -m. 1 A sacrificial priest, especially one who recites the prayers of the Ṛigveda at a sacrifice

போற்றி pōTTi/pōTRi->होतृकः होत्रकः An assistant of the Hotṛi.

போற்று(PoTTu)->போற்றிமை pōTTimai , n. Honour, reverence; வணக்கம். (W.)

போற்று(PoTTu)->போத்தி, 1.--int. Exclamation of praise; துதிச்சொல்வகை.

போத்தி Poththi->(Poththai)->(Pochchai)->பூசை Poosai (Tamil) 1. Worship; homage to superiors; adoration of the gods with proper ceremonies; ஆராதனை.. 2. Taking meals, as of devotees;

பூசை->పూజ [ pūja ] or పూజనము pūja. n. Worship, reverence.

పూజకుడు pūjakuḍu. n. A worshipper, a priest.

பூசி-த்தல் pūsi-v. 1. To perform acts of ceremonial worship; 2. To treat courteously, reverence; 3. To caress, fondle;

பூசி-த்தல்->పూజించు or పూజచేయు pūjinṭṣu v. a. To worship, adore, do homage or obeisance to, reverence.

పూజ [ pūza ] pūḍza.

பூசை pūsai->పూజ (Pūja)->पूजा pūjā

பூசை + ஆரி (Pusai+aari)->பூசாரி (poosaari)

பூசாரிpūsāri-> పూజరి, పూజారి or పూజారివాడు pūjāri. (పూజ +అరి.) n. An officiating Brahmin or priest of a temple. అర్చకుడు. పూజారిసాని pūjāri-sāni. n. A priestess. Zacca. vi. 127.

பூசாலி pūsāli, n. பூசாரி. (யாழ். அக.).

ஆரி என்ற ஆண்பால் விகுதி தமிழ் மட்டும் உள்ளது.

Cf/ஒப்பிடுக : தலை Talai +ஆரி āri -> தலையாரி Talaiyāri-> தலாரி తలారి [ talāri ] or తలవరి (Telugu) Village officer. āri is a Tamil Suffix and it is not available in Skt.

பூசாரி->Hindi पुजारी puja:ri: (nm) a worshipper, adorer; Hindu priest . No such word is available in Sanskrit.

http://dsal.uchicago...ct&display=utf8

பூசாரி-> (punjabi) PUJÁRÁ ਪੁਜਾਰਾ s. m. A worshipper, one who makes pújá, a priest.

பூசாரி-> (punjabi) PUJÁRÍ ਪੁਜਾਰੀ s. m. A worshipper, one who makes pújá, a priest.

பூசகன் pūsakaṉ -> (punjabi) PÚJAK ਪੂਜਕ s. m. A worshipper (of a devtá, or the Deity.)

In Skt for the word पूजक pūjaka the meanings are given as Honouring, adoring, worshipping, respecting &c. and not the priest.

Origin of Homa System:-

In Historical Times, peoples were depending upon fire for day to day domestic life.

அரணி¹ araṇi, n. Pieces of pipal or mesquit wood, used for kindling the sacred fire by attrition; தீக்கடைகோல். அரணி யின்புறத் தனலென (பாரத. சம்பவ. 7).

அரணி¹ araṇi->अरणिः araṇiḥ m., f. -णी f. A piece of wood (of the Śamī tree) used for kindling the sacred fire by attrition, the fire- producing wooden stick; -णी (dual) The two pieces of wood used in kindling the sacred fire. -णिः 1 The sun. -2 fire.


ஞெகிழி ñekiḻi , n. <> (ஓம்பம் ōmbam)->ஓமம்² ōmam, n.1. Offering an oblation to the gods by pouring ghee, etc. into the consecrated fire; வேள்வித்தீயில் நெய் முதலி யன பெய்கை. ஓமம் வேள்வி யுதவி தவஞ்செபம் (சே துபு. சேதுச. 51). 2. Sacrifice; வேள்வி. (திவா.)


ஓமி-த்தல் ōmi-, 11 v. To perform the hōma


ஓமம்² ōmam-> होमः hōmḥ 1 Offering oblations to gods by throwing ghee into the consecrated fire, (one of the five daily Yajñas, to be performed by a Brāhmaṇa, called देवयज्ञ q. v.); -2 A burnt offering. -3 A sacrifice; -Comp. -अग्निः the sacrificial fire. -कर्मन् sacrificial act. -कल्पः mode of sacrificing. -कुण्डम् a hole in the ground for receiving the consecrated fire. -तुरङ्गः a sacrificial horse; -धानम् a sacrificial chamber. -धूमः the smoke of a burnt offering or sacrificial fire. -धेनुः a cow yielding milk for an oblation. -भस्मन् n. the ashes of a burnt offering. -भाण्डम् a sacrificial implement. -वेला the time for offering oblations. -शाला a sacrificial hall or chamber.


होमिः hōmiḥ 1 Clarified butter. -2 Fire.


होमिन् hōmin m. The offerer of an oblation, a sacrificer in general.


ஓமம்வளர்-த்தல் ōmam-vaḷar-, v. intr. <> होमः hōmḥ->(हुमः humḥ)-> हु hu 1 To offer or present (as oblation to fire); make an offering to or in honour of a deity (with acc.); sacrifice -2 To perform a sacrifice. -3 To eat.


हु hu-> हुत huta 1 Offered as an oblation to fire, burnt as a sacrificial offering; -2 One to whom an oblation is offered; Ś.4; R.2.71. -तः N. of Śiva. -तम् 1 An oblation, offering. -2 An Oblation to fire; द्वे देवानभाजय- दिति हुतं च प्रहुतं च Bṛi. Up.1.5.2; Bg.9.16. -Comp. -अग्निः a. who has made an oblation to fire; (-m.) a sacrificial fire. -अशः 1 fire. -2 N. of the number 'three'. -3 Plumbago Ceylanica (Mar. चित्रक). -अशनः 1 fire;-2 N. of Śiva. -3 the Chitraka tree. ˚सहायः an epithet of Śiva. -अशनी the full-moon day in the month of Phālguna (होलिका). -आशः fire; प्रदक्षिणीकृत्य हुतं हुताशम् R. 2.71. -जातवेदस् a. one who has made an oblation to fire. -भुज् m. fire; -वहः fire; . -होमः a Brāhmaṇa who has offered oblations to fire; (-मम्) a burnt offering


हु hu-> हुत huta -> हुतिः hutiḥ f. Offering oblations;

However the words हवः havḥ and हव्य havya havya were earlier used to denote food only, and thereafter the meaning of oblation was ascribed to them

Lets see. if havi denotes sacrifice, then हविर्यज्ञः should be suffering from punarukta dhosha/tautology, i.e. [हविस् havis An oblation or burnt offering in general+ यज्ञः yajñḥ any offering or oblation;].

In Sanskrit Nighantu/Dictionary, हविर्यज्ञः is mentioned as a kind of sacrifice without explaining the nature. But if applies tamil meaning, हविर्यज्ञः can be explained.

அவி¹-தல் avi- , 4 v. intr. 1. To be boiled, cooked by boiling or steaming; பாகமாதல்.

அவி²-த்தல் avi- , 11 v. tr. caus. of அவி¹-. 1. To boil in a liquid, cook by boiling or steaming; வேகச்செய்தல். அறுத்தவித் தாரச் சமைத்த பிள்ளைக் குகந்தார் (மறைசை. 20).

அவி³ avi, n. 1. Offerings made to the gods in sacrificial fire; வேள்வித்தீயில் தேவர்க்குத் கொடுக்கும் உணவு (Food). (குறள், 413.) 2. Food; உணவு. அவி யடுநர்க்குச் சுவைபகர்ந் தேவி (பதினொ. திருவிடை. 7). 3. Boiled rice; சோறு. (சூடா.) 4. Ghee; நெய். (பிங்.)

அவி³ avi-> அவிசு avisu, n. 1. Offering made to the gods in sacrificial fire; வேள்வித் தீயில் தேவர்க்குக் கொடுக்கும் உணவு. (தக்கயாகப். 46, உரை.) 2. Ghee; நெய். (நாநார்த்த.) 3. Cooked rice, prepared without straining the conjee; கஞ்சிவடியாது சமைத்த சோறு. Loc.

அவிசு avisu-> हविस् havis 1 Clarified butter; -2 Water (boiled?). -3 Food (अन्न); -Comp. -अशनम् (हविरशनम्) devouring clarified butter or oblations.

அவியல் aviyal, n. 1. Boiling, cooking; பாகஞ்செய்கை. (பிங்.) 2. Food; உணவு. செந்தினையி னவியல் (கூர்மபு. கண்ணன்மண. 145). 3. Kind of vegetable dish; கறிவகை. 4. Swelter, sultriness; புழுக்கம். 5. Soreness of the mouth; வாய்ப்புண். (W.)

அவை²-த்தல் avai-, 11 v. tr. [Tu. abay.] 1.To cook, boil; அவித்தல். (பிங்.)

அவ்வியம்³ avviyam n. Oblation offered to the gods; தேவர்க்கிடும் பலி. (மச் சபு. சிராத்தானு. 2.)


அப்பியம் appiyam, n. Oblation to the gods; தேவர்க்கிடப்படும் அவிசு. (அறநெறி. 26.)

அவ்வியம்³ avviyam-> हव्य havya a. To be offered in oblations. -व्यम् 1 Clarified butter. -2 An oblation or offering to the gods (opp. कव्य q. v.). -3 An oblation in general; -व्या A cow; इडे रन्ते हव्ये etc. ŚB. on -Comp. -आशः fire. -कव्यम् oblations to the gods and to the Manes, or spirits of deceased ancestors; -पाकः an oblation cooked with butter and milk, or the pot in which it is cooked. -लेहिन्, -वाह्, -वाह, -वाहन m. 'the bearer of oblations', fire;

அவி³ avi-> हवः havḥ 1 An oblation, a sacrifice;
அவி³ avi-> हवः havḥ-> हवनम् havanam 1 Offering an oblation with fire. -2 A sacrifice, an oblation. -3 A sacrificial ladle. -नः 1 Fire. -2 A fire-receptacle. -Comp. -आयुस् m. fire.

அவி³ avi-> हवः havḥ-> हवनी havanī

हवनी = हवित्री q. v.
हवनीय havanīya

हवनीय a. [हु कर्मणि अनीयर्] Sacrificial. -यम् 1 Anything fit for an oblation. -2 Clarified butter or ghee.
हवित्री havitrī

हवित्री A hole made in the ground for holding the sacred fire (to which oblations are offered).

அவி³ avi-> அவிசு avisu-> हविस् havis An oblation or burnt offering in general


அவி³ avi-> அவிசு avisu-> हविस् havis-> हविष्मत् haviṣmat a. Possessed of oblations.
हविष्मती haviṣmatī

हविष्मती N. of the mythical cow Kāmadhenu;
हविष्यम् haviṣyam

हविष्यम् 1 Anything fit for an oblation; -2 Clarified butter. -3 Wild rice. -4 Rice mixed with ghee. -Comp. -अन्नम् food fit to be eaten during certain holidays or days of fast. -आशिन्, -भुज् m. fire.

Therefore the meaning of हविर्यज्ञः is nothing but food oblation into the sacred fire.

Difference between original Tamilian offerings and Brahminical offerings.

Sacrifice in Non Brahminical Tamilian procedure

Types= Grains, Food (Veg and Non Veg), Domestic Animals (Goat, Chicken)-live or
killed,body parts, one's own life, and blood.

to whom=God

by whom= Generally Farmer

for whom= Nil

intention= to thank God for an abundant harvest

place= alter, and fire pit (which is in the later period)

Requirement of Agent= Nil

Procedure= Simple language

expenses= very less

Sacrifice in the Brahminical procedure

Types= Food (rice, ghee), Animal (Horse), other human being's life (Naramedha)

to whom= Fire, in the name of God

by whom = Brahmins

for whom =l King, also Merchants, rarely Sudra

intention = Fee(Dhakshina)/Wifes and cattle given by King, Merchants, Wealthy Sudra

place= fire pit

Requirement= Brahmin

Procedure =Complicated procedure with Rigveda chanting

expenses =Very high